Monday, July 9, 2007


It is a process for developing individual skills and effectiveness. Individual effectiveness, in terms of skills, knowledge and attitude, is one of the essential building blocks towards achievement of the wider goal of improved organizational efficiency and effectiveness. The development of the individual and the organization are therefore inextricably linked.When organization has invested in some training, how do we know if it has a success? Our gut feeling might be that skills and practice have improved. But in what ways and by how much has it improved, and did organization get value of money? Answer of these questions can be given by doing evaluation. The evaluation of training forms the remaining part of the training cycle which starts with the identification of training needs, establishing objectives and continues through to the design and delivery of the training course itself. It is the function of evaluation to assess whether the learning objectives originally identified have been satisfied and any deficiency rectified. Evaluation is the analysis and comparison of actual progress versus prior plans, oriented toward improving plans for future implementation. It is part of a continuing management process consisting of planning, implementation and evaluation; ideally with each following the other in a continuous cycle until successful completion of the activity. Evaluation process must start before training has begun and continue throughout the whole learning process.

Training policy could be stated as:
To provide cost-effective training for the Company which is clearly identified with, and is supportive of, current and future business requirements, to agreed standards and within financial limits determined by the board?

Training can and must make a significant contribution towards securing both individual and organization objectives.
1.Every manager, potential manager and employee must receive the training required to perform his/her job effectively.
2.Training must deliver real tangible and measurable results.

Training Purpose

To satisfy present and future company needs created by organizational growth and change, accelerating business technology and increasing competition.

1.To achieve the maximum possible learning in the shortest possible time.
2.To ensure that training effectiveness is measured.
3.To provide high quality training and support services to the staff of Company Name on all aspects of technical / non-technical / behavioral / spiritual progress.
4.Enable Help & Support for Planning and Design of a trainer
5.Aid in identifying training requirements and areas.
6.To make an inventory of people with detailed information on their skill and qualification
7.To prioritize groups according to the training needs.

Objectives of Training Policy

1.To impart a new entrant the basic knowledge and skill they need for an intelligent performance of definite tasks.

2.To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information, techniques and developing the skills they will need in their particular fields.

3.To offer a range of Multi Skills training, subject to available resources, in response to the needs of our customers / new technical advancements.

4.To offer a consistently high quality of support and training in multi skills to all staff members working with Company Name

5.To offer provision for documentation, learning materials and training wherever possible.

6.Clarify training plans in individual personal development portfolios as the prime mechanism assisting in the achievement of corporate objectives.

7Finally individual or group training objectives should be used to design personal development portfolios, design training events and/or development experiences and drive delivery and subsequently assess performance improvement

Training Objectives are derived from

1.Training needs analysis
2.Performance assessment of personal development portfolios
3.Stating the targeted improvement in output or performance required as a result of training and/or development.

4.Corporate aims, objectives need assigning to each senior manager, in turn they have to be broken down to functional sections/work groups or individuals as appropriate. Consequently all levels become aware of their "assignment".
Need for Training

Changes occurring at an increasing pace in technology, information systems, attitudes to and behavior at work etc.
A need to make and manage cost reductions.
A requirement for more professionalism.
A need for more analytical and assertive business management.
A more flexible, aware and demanding work force.
More critical and selective customers.
An increasing diversification of the technology and human skills.

Training Budget

1.HR Department will submit at the beginning of each financial year the budget for Training & 2.Development activities to Board of Partners. The budget will include:
3.Report on last years training activities including efficacy.
4.Training Man days achieved and budget for current year.
5.Training costs budgeted for external programs.
6.Internal training programs and costs.
6.Capital investments including training equipment planned.
7.Segment & skill wise training calendar for the year.
8.Trainers developed during last year and planned for current year.

Training Calendar

Training calendar shall be submitted to Partner and upon approval shall be circulated to all HODs and concerned. The Training Calendar must be prepared in close consultation with all HODs so as to ensure no overlapping dates appear in the training calendar vis-à-vis normal functioning of the organization.

Training Calendar shall consist of following information:

1.Program details
3Duration & Timings
4.Type of Program -External/Internal
6.Participants Profile
7.Follow up sessions

Training Needs Analysis
1.Operational plans
2Strategic plans
3.Corporate aims, for example to:
o Improve performances
o Cope with Change
4Improve communications and team working
5.Plan succession

Training need identification

Ways to identify

1. Individual feedback on training needs
2. Appraisal
3. Individual personal files & performance
4. Technical needs of the organization
5. Customer feedback
6. HOD feedback
7. From external advertisements

Training need identification survey shall focus on identifying three types of training needs:

Organizational Needs

Development Needs

Functional Needs

The outcome of the Training Need Analysis should be summarized function wise and quarter wise for each employee.

Based on this analysis, the training plan should be devised to provide Value Added Training to all the employees of Company Name.

Training Evaluation

Evaluation is a de-briefing with ones immediate superior soon after a learning experience and gathering appropriate evidence, analyzing and interpreting that evidence and then making a judgment.

How to Evaluate Training –

1.Collect appropriate evidence to demonstrate compliance with the organization's defined values and behaviors
2.Collaborate its validity, currency, sufficiency and authenticity and make your judgments

Evaluation questions-

1.Whether the required changes have taken place

2.Whether the organization has got the return it sought and if not why not

3.What remedial action is required

4.May be what new initiatives, whether training or change based, might be initiated

5.Evidence can be collected from various sources and in a number of ways, e.g.:

6.By interviewing holders of personal development portfolios (to obtain, for example, personal accounts of decisions and actions taken in different situations)

7.By sampling outputs of their work (e.g. letters to customers, minutes of meetings, reports, work instructions, plans, schedules, programs)

8By searching appraisal and other performance management records

9.By completing psychometric, competence or capability tests

10.By interviewing their immediate superiors and colleagues

11.By holders of personal development portfolios completing self-assessment questionnaires

12.By direct observation at work or in assessment center

Sunday, July 8, 2007

Traning and Development

The objective of training and development is to enable civil servants to acquire the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes necessary to enable them to improve their performance. Staff training and development should focus on the department's objectives and goals and staff's competencies in achieving them. A strategic approach has the following characteristics :

1.Commitment to training and developing people;
2.Regular analysis of operational requirements and staff competencies;
3.linking training and development to departmental goals and objectives;
4.Skilled training personnel;
5.Regular evaluation;
6A continuous learning culture; 7.joint responsibility between managers and staff for identifying and meeting training needs.

"Learning is not a spectator sport -- it is an active, not a passive, enterprise. Accordingly, a learning environment must invite, even demand, the active engagement of the student". - "D. Blocher"

Training Defined Before trying to understand system type training, we must first understand what training is. We need to clarify the definition of training and then do the same for human resource development. Training is defined as learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job.A person's performance is improved by showing her how to master a new or established technology. The technology may be a piece of heavy machinery, a computer, a procedure for creating a product, or a method of providing a service. Notice that the last part of the definition states that training is provided for the present job. This includes training new personnel to perform their job, introducing a new technology, or bringing an employee up to standards.

"If you don't know where you are going, any road will take you there". - Lewis Carroll

Human Resource Development

Human Resource Development DefinedTraining is part of Human Resource Development (HRD). Do not confuse HRD with the term "human resource department." A human resource department is concerned with all aspects of the employees, such as pay, benefits, equal opportunity, and of course training. HRD is concerned with training, development, and education.

HRD has been defined as an organized learning experience, conducted in a definite time period, to increase the possibility of improving job performance and growth. Organized means that it is conducted in a systematic way. Although learning can be incidental, training is concerned with the worker learning clear and concise standards of performance or objectives. Having an objective is important. Without an objective, you could end up someplace else...and not even know it. Objectives are the tools for guiding managers, learners, and trainers. Managers need objectives so that they know what kind of return they are receiving from their training investment. Learners need them so that they know exactly what is expected of them. And trainers need them to plan and conduct the learning environment so that they may achieve the desired results. The second part of the definition, conducted in a definite time period, means that the amount of time the learner will be away from work must be determined and specified at the onset of the training program.

The last part of the statement, to increase the possibility of improving job performance and growth, is basically the definition of training. By possibility, it means that although a organization can provide tools to help the learner succeed, such as education and training specialists, counselors, coaches, and state-of-the-art training materials, the ultimate responsibility for success belongs to the learner.

The last part of the statement, to increase the possibility of improving job performance and growth, is basically the definition of training. By possibility, it means that although a organization can provide tools to help the learner succeed, such as education and training specialists, counselors, coaches, and state-of-the-art training materials, the ultimate responsibility for success belongs to the learner.

Training, Development, and Education

Training, Development, and EducationHRD programs are divided into three main categories: Training, Development, and Education. Although some organizations lump all learning under "Training" or "Training and Development," dividing it into three distinct categories makes the desired goals and objects more meaningful and precise.

Training for the present, Educating for the future, Developing to lead. As discussed earlier, training is the acquisition of technology which permits employees to perform their present job to standards. It improves human performance on the job the employee is presently doing or is being hired to do. Also, it is given when new technology in introduced into the workplace.

Education is training people to do a different job. It is often given to people who have been identified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or upwards, or to increase their potential. Unlike training, which can be fully evaluated immediately upon the learners returning to work, education can only be completely evaluated when the learners move on to their future jobs or tasks. We can test them on what they learned while in training, but we cannot be fully satisfied with the evaluation until we see how well they perform their new jobs.

Development is training people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints. It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive rather than reactive. It enables workers to create better products, faster services, and more competitive organizations. It is learning for growth of the individual, but not related to a specific present or future job. Unlike training and education, which can be completely evaluated, development cannot always be fully evaluated. This does not mean that we should abandon development programs, as helping people to grow and develop is what keeps an organization in the cutting edge of competitive environments. Development can be considered the forefront of what many now call the Learning Organization.

Development involves changes in an organism that are systematic, organized, and successiveÖand are thought to serve an adaptive function . Training could be compared this metaphor - if I miss one meal in a day, then I will not be able to work as effectively due to a lack of nutrition. While development would be compared to this metaphor - if I do not eat, then I will starve to death. The survival of the organization requires development throughout the ranks in order to survive, while training makes the organization more effective and efficient in its day-to-day operations.

"The goal of instruction is to overcome a deficiency in a skill, knowledge, or attitude. The designer must understand the instructional goals so that the courseware's content, layout, strategies, and activities may be built to maximize the learning experience"

The Training System

The Training SystemWhen some people see or hear the word system, they think of mega-methodologies that require several bookcases and intense training to use. A System Approach to Training is not that difficult or complicated. The Instructional System Development (ISD) Model was designed to solve training problems . It is probably the most extensively used instructional design model in use today. When some people see or hear the word system, they think of mega-methodologies that require several bookcases and intense training to use. A System Approach to Training is not that difficult or complicated. The Instructional System Development (ISD) Model was designed to solve training problems. Figure 2, shown below, is a flowchart of the ISD model. It was first established by the Department of Defense, but can now be found in almost any type of organization. It grew out of the "systems analysis" concepts that became popular after World War II. It is probably the most extensively used instructional design model in use today.
ISD is concerned with the identification of training requirements based on the analysis of job performance requirements data obtained from experts in the job to be performed. Training objectives are formulated as a result of the job analysis process and tests are developed to be used to assess the learner's progress toward meeting the training objectives. ISD or SAT also attempts to bring structure to the instructional design process when determining the optimal instructional strategies, instructional sequencing, and instructional delivery media for the types of training objectives involved.
Although there are minor difference, most development systems follow an approach similar to this:

Analyze the system in order to completely understand it, and then describe the goals you wish to achieve in order to correct any shortcomings or faults within the system.

Design a method or model to achieve your goals.

Develop the model into a product (in training, this product is called courseware). Implement the courseware.

Evaluate the courseware and audit-trail throughout the four phases and in the field to ensure it is heading in the right direction and achieving the desired results

The ISD Model

The flowchart model used in Figure 2 (shown above), shows the five phases with their basic steps listed below them. Although the above model shows the processes, it does not really show the dynamics of the ISD model. For that purpose, Figure 3 is used.
This figure highlights the importance of evaluation and feedback throughout the entire training program. It also stresses the importance of gathering and distributing information in each of the five phases and shows the training process is NOT a static (waterfall) model, but a iterative flow of activities (dynamic or spiral). The five phases are ongoing activities that continue throughout the life of a training program. After building a training program, the other phases do not end once the training program is implemented. The five phases are continually repeated on a regular basis to see if further improvements can be made.

A brief description of the ISD process:

Analyze : Analyze system (department, job, etc.) to gain a complete understanding of it. Compile a task inventory of all tasks associated with each job (if needed). Select tasks that need to be trained (needs analysis). Build performance measures for the tasks to be trained. Choose instructional setting for the tasks to be trained, e.g. classroom, on-the-job, self study, etc. Estimate what is going to cost to train the tasks.

Design: Develop the learning objectives for each task, to include both terminal and enabling objectives. Identify and list the learning steps required to perform the task. Develop the performance tests to show mastery of the tasks to be trained, e.g. written, hands on, etc. List the entry behaviors that the learner must demonstrate prior to training. Sequence and structure the learning objectives, e.g. easy tasks first.
Develop : List activities that will help the students learn the task. Select the delivery method such as tapes, handouts, etc. Review existing material so that you do not reinvent the wheel. Develop the instructional courseware. Synthesize the courseware into a viable training program. Validate the instruction to ensure it accomplishes all goals and objectives.

Implement : Create a management plan for conducting the training. Conduct the training.

Evaluate: Review and evaluate each phase (analyze, design, develop, implement) to ensure it is accomplishing what it is supposed to. Perform external evaluations, e.g. observe that the tasks that were trained can actually be performed by the learner on the job. Revise training system to make it better.

Making The System Effective

One important point must be made. The ISD model is a system to aid in the design and development of a training program. It is a valuable toolbox that provides a proven method of building a viable training program. But, the people in the organization must control the training system, the system should not control the people. Immediate problems often arise that require rapid solutions. Don't get hung up in the system model by refusing to bypass a step, switch steps, modify a step, or include steps of your own. Managers and supervisors often need quick and ingenious solutions, not another bureaucracy. In other words, the training department's motto should be: "We provide training solutions!" Not, "We follow the ISD model

The steps in each phase should not be thought of as concrete in nature. That is, one step does not have to be completed before the next one is started. For example, some training designers will have to complete part of the work in the design phase before they can complete the estimate step in the analysis phase. In the development phase, the first three steps, list learner activity, select delivery system, and review existing material, might be combined into one step by many developers. Every training project will develop its own rhythm. The developers must find the natural flow of the steps required to produce a successful training program. Although the SAT process is a formal one, in that the five phases should be performed as shown in the flowchart, it requires both art and science in its implementation.

To make a training program usable, the following activities must take place in its development:

An early focus on the clients must be maintained. This is done by direct contact with the clients through interviews, observations, surveys, and participatory design and development methods. You must ensure that the clients are made owners of the training program throughout the entire SAT process. If they feel the program is being shoved down their throats or their turf is being invaded, the program will fail.

The five phases - analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation should be under one management team to ensure that a symmetrical program is constructed.
The design must be an empirical one. This requires observation, measurement of behavior, careful evaluation of feedback, and a strong motivation to make design changes when needed. The process of implementation, testing, feedback, evaluation, and change must be repeated throughout the training system's life to improve upon it. Do NOT fall into the old adage, "If it ain't broke don't fix it." Make it better before your competitors do!

Records must be maintained. The audit trail should contain the data gathered in the analysis, the reasons for developing a piece of courseware, and documents that explain why certain decisions were made. This information could prove invaluable in the future when changes are needed or when a similar program must be built.

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The Big Book of Humorous Training Games (Big Book of Business Games Series)Doni Tamblyn; Paperback; Buy New: $15.37

1001 Ways to Energize EmployeesBob Nelson; Paperback; Buy New: $8.76

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Designing Web-Based Training : How to Teach Anyone Anything Anywhere AnytimeWilliam Horton; Paperback; Buy New: $33.99

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