Monday, February 11, 2008

Communication Feedback

Constructive Feedback: Developing your Skills

"I don't know how to turn her performance around; she never used to have these attendance problems and her work used to be so good; I don't know why this is happening and what to do."
This manager is struggling with one of the most important yet trickiest and most difficult management tasks: providing contructive and useful feedback to others. Effective feedback is absolutely essential to organizational effectiveness; people must know where they are and where to go next in terms of expectations and goals-yours, their own, and the organization.

Feedback taps basic human needs-to improve, to compete, to be accurate; people want to be competent. Feedback can be reinforcing; if given properly, feedback is almost always appreciated and motivates people to improve. But for many people, daily work is like bowling with a curtain placed between them and the pins; they receive little information.

Be aware of the many reasons why people are hesitant to give feedback; they include fear of causing embarassment, discomfort, fear of an emotional reaction, and inability to handle the reaction.
It is crucial that we realize how critical feedback can be and overcome our difficulties; it is very important and can be very rewarding but it requires skill, understanding, courage, and respect for yourself and others.

Withholding constructive feedback is like sending people out on a dangerous hike without a compass. This is especially true in today's fast changing and demanding workplace.
Why managers are often reluctant to provide feedback

As important as feedback is, this critical managerial task remains one of the most problematic. Many managers would rather have root canal work than provide feedback to another-especially feedback that might be viewed as critical. Why are managers so reluctant to provide feedback? The Reasons are many:
fear of the other person's reaction; people can get very defensive and emotional when confronted with feedback and many managers are very fearful of the reaction

the feedback may be based on subjective feeling and the manager may be unable to give concrete information if the other person questions the basis for the feedback
the information on which the feedback is based (eg. performance appraisal) may be a very flawed process and the manager may not totally trust the information

many managers would prefer being a coach than "playing God."
Other factors get in the way of effective communication or feedback sessions. Some of these reasons are:

· defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the past
· misreading of body language, tone
· noisy transmission (unreliable messages, inconsistency)
· receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cues
· power struggles
· self-fulfilling assupmtions
· language-different levels of meaning
· managers hesitation to be candid
· assumptions-eg. assuming others see situation same as you, has same feelings as you
· distrusted source, erroneous translation, value judgment, state of mind of two people

Win-Win Negotiation

Win-Win Negotiation - Finding a fair compromise

Negotiation skills help you to resolve situations where what you want conflicts with what someone else wants. The aim of negotiation is to explore the situation to find a solution that is acceptable to both parties.

There are different styles of negotiation, depending on circumstances. Where you do not expect to deal with people ever again and you do not need their goodwill, then it may be appropriate to ‘play hardball’, seeking to win a negotiation while the other person loses out. Many people go through this when they buy or sell a house – this is why house-buying can be such a confrontational and unpleasant experience. Similarly, where there is a great deal at stake in a negotiation (for example, in large sales negotiations), then it may be appropriate to prepare in detail and use a certain amount of subtle gamesmanship to gain advantage.

Both of these approaches are usually wrong for resolving disputes with people you have an ongoing relationship with: if one person plays hardball, then this disadvantages the other person – this may, quite fairly, lead to reprisal later. Similarly, using tricks and manipulation during a negotiation can severely undermine trust and damage teamwork. While a manipulative person may not get caught out if negotiation is infrequent, this is not the case when people work together on a frequent basis. Honesty and openness are the best policies in this case.
Preparing for a successful negotiation…Depending on the scale of the disagreement, a level of preparation may be appropriate for conducting a successful negotiation.

For small disagreements, excessive preparation can be counter-productive because it takes time that is better used elsewhere. It can also be seen as manipulative because just as it strengthens your position, it can weaken the other person’s.

If a major disagreement needs to be resolved, then it can be worth preparing thoroughly. Think through the following points before you start negotiating:
Goals: what do you want to get out of the negotiation? What do you expect the other person to want?

Trades: What do you and the other person have that you can trade? What do you each have that the other might want? What might you each be prepared to give away?
Alternatives: if you don’t reach agreement with the other person, what alternatives do you have? Are these good or bad? How much does it matter if you do not reach agreement? Does failure to reach an agreement cut you out of future opportunities? What alternatives might the other person have?

Relationships: what is the history of the relationship? Could or should this history impact the negotiation? Will there be any hidden issues that may influence the negotiation? How will you handle these?
‘Expected outcomes’: what outcome will people be expecting from this negotiation? What has the outcome been in the past, and what precedents have been set?

The consequences: what are the consequences for you of winning or losing this negotiation? What are the consequences for the other person?

Power: who has what power in the relationship? Who controls resources? Who stands to lose the most if agreement isn’t reached? What power does the other person have to deliver what you hope for?

Possible solutions: based on all of the considerations, what possible compromises might there be?
Style is critical…
For a negotiation to be 'win-win', both parties should feel positive about the situation when the negotiation is concluded. This helps to maintain a good working relationship afterwards. This governs the style of the negotiation – histrionics and displays of emotion are clearly inappropriate because they undermine the rational basis of the negotiation and because they bring a manipulative aspect to them.

Despite this, emotion can be an important subject of discussion because people's emotional needs must fairly be met. If emotion is not discussed where it needs to be, then the agreement reached can be unsatisfactory and temporary. Be as detached as possible when discussing your own emotions – perhaps discuss them as if they belong to someone else.
Negotiating successfully…
The negotiation itself is a careful exploration of your position and the other person’s position, with the goal of finding a mutually acceptable compromise that gives you both as much of what you want as possible. People's positions are rarely as fundamentally opposed as they may initially appear - the other person may quite often have very different goals from the ones you expect!

In an ideal situation, you will find that the other person wants what you are prepared to trade, and that you are prepared to give what the other person wants.

If this is not the case and one person must give way, then it is fair for this person to try to negotiate some form of compensation for doing so – the scale of this compensation will often depend on the many of the factors we discussed above. Ultimately, both sides should feel comfortable with the final solution if the agreement is to be considered win-win.

Importance of Communication

Why Communications Skills Are So Important:

The purpose of communication is to get your message across to others. This is a process that involves both the sender of the message and the receiver. This process leaves room for error, with messages often misinterpreted by one or more of the parties involved. This causes unnecessary confusion and counter productivity.

In fact, a message is successful only when both the sender and the receiver perceive it in the same way.

By successfully getting your message across, you convey your thoughts and ideas effectively. When not successful, the thoughts and ideas that you convey do not necessarily reflect your own, causing a communications breakdown and creating roadblocks that stand in the way of your goals – both personally and professionally.
In a recent survey of recruiters from companies with more than 50,000 employees, communication skills were cited as the single more important decisive factor in choosing managers. The survey, conducted by the University of Pittsburgh’s Katz Business School, points out that communication skills, including written and oral presentations, as well as an ability to work with others, are the main factor contributing to job success.

In spite of the increasing importance placed on communication skills, many individuals continue to struggle with this, unable to communicate their thoughts and ideas effectively – whether in verbal or written format. This inability makes it nearly impossible for them to compete effectively in the workplace, and stands in the way of career progression.

Getting your message across is paramount to progressing. To do this, you must understand what your message is, what audience you are sending it to, and how it will be perceived. You must also weigh-in the circumstances surrounding your communications, such as situational and cultural context.

Myths of Communication

Myths of Communication
Myths of communication are common misunderstandings about communication. When people believe these myths, they make mistakes in communication.
1. We communicate only when we want to communicate. FALSE
We communicate all day, every day, often without realizing it. As long as people can observe or hear us, they’re getting information from and forming opinions about us.

2. Words mean the same thing to both speaker and listener. FALSE

When Bala said she needed the third Saturday off, she thought she was being clear. Manoj thought he clearly understood. However, both of them attached entirely different meanings to the same set of words. Words hold different meanings for different people based on their experiences, perception, and interpretations.

3. We communicate chiefly with words. FALSE

Manoj communicated a great deal without using only words. He argued, slammed the phone, stormed out, muttered, threw the clipboard, glared, shouted, and replied sarcastically. And Bala clearly got his messages! In reality, we communicate most of our messages nonverbally. We use our tone of voice, facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, and the way we sit or walk to communicate what we are feeling and to support the words we speak.
4. We believe what a person says, not how he or she says it. FALSE

When Manoj leaned back, covered his eyes with his hands, and replied sarcastically, “No problem, Bala. I’ll be happy to rearrange the schedule to suit your family’s needs,” do you think Bala really believed it would be no problem and that Manoj would be happy to do it? It’s not likely. She believed Manoj’s tone of voice and what she saw, not the words he spoke. When a person’s verbal message and nonverbal message don’t match, the listener will believe the nonverbal message.

5. Communication is a one – way flow of information from the speaker to the listener. FALSE

During their meeting, both Bala and Manoj spoke, listened, and responded to what the order has to say. Some people believe that communication is a speaker talking at a listener rather than with a listener. In reality, effective communication takes place when both individuals participate actively. They do this when the listener gives the speaker feedback. Feedback is a listener’s reaction to the speaker’s verbal and nonverbal communication. Feedback can be verbal, such as “I don’t understand what you mean,” or it can be nonverbal, such as scowling or shaking your head.

Communication Elements

Communication Elements

Body language
Voice quality
Manner: directness, sincerity
Dress and clothing (style, color, appropriateness for situation)
Visual aids, animation
Eye contact
Emotional content, energy, strength
Concept of others
Listening, hearing the underlying message
Speaking from the heart
Setting, time, place, timing
How the messenger holds the message
Rhythm and pacing
Attitude and confidence
Purpose of communication - knowing what you want to communicate
Silence, centering, looking

Attentiveness to speaker
Eye contact
Intention be fully awake and aware
Openness: to other person and your own
Paying attention
Listening to yourself
Body language
Change in pattern
Expectations about person speaking, about their message, about their agenda

Communication Methods

Communication Methods

Experts say that communication is composed of different methods: words, voice, tone and non-verbal clues. Of these, some are more effective in delivering a message than others. According to research, in a conversation or verbal exchange:

Words are 7% effective
Tone of voice is 38% effective
Non-verbal clues are 55% effective.
Non-verbal clues include:

*Body language (e.g., arms crossed, standing, sitting, relaxed, tense),
*Emotion of the sender and receiver (e.g., yelling, speaking provocatively, enthusiastic)
*Other connections between the people (e.g., friends, enemies, professional similarities or differences, personal similarities or differences, age similarities or differences, philosophical similarities or differences, attitudes, expectations).
In other words, WHAT you say is not nearly as important as HOW you say it!

Guidelines of communication

Guidelines of communication
Have a positive attitude about communication. Defensiveness interferes with Communication

Be an active listener and do not answer until the other person has finished talking

Be slow to speak. Think first about what you are going to say and how it may sound

Do not use silence to frustrate the other person. Explain why you are hesitant to talk at this time

Do not get involved in blame-game or name calling. It possible to disagree with having conflict

Listen without thinking about what you will say next. Take time before you respond

Do not be invested in being right. Being right is not the point. If you must be right, you are able

to neither listen nor communicate because you have set up a barrier already. If you are always
right that means the other person is always wrong. That cannot be true.

If your mind wanders, ask for repetition. We all are subject to distraction. Try to stay focused

In all cases repeat back what you heard and ask if it is correct

Work at improving communication skills. It takes knowledge and work

Maintain eye contact

Use an open posture with your hands and legs

Smile or nod in accord with what is being said or in what you observe in the other person

Effective Communication Skills

Communication is not only conveying or sharing our ideas, thoughts or feelings, however it’s about having those ideas, thoughts, and feelings understood by the people we are talking with. So communication has to be effective which also involves feedback. As without feedback, there would be no way of knowing if meaning has been shared or if understanding has taken place.

The ability to speak clearly and concisely, and to convey information or articulate an opinion is essential for every job. Communication is reflection of our professionalism, our intellect, our preparedness, and our character. Communication is not an isolated series of only one skill. It involves several other skills. The ability to effectively communicate is a critical skills and it involves the following skills:

Language skills
Writing Skills
Listening Skills
Soft skills
Effective Verbal Communication

Verbal communication requires the use of words, vocabulary, numbers and symbols and is organized in sentences using language.

Mastering linguistic skill is not reserved for the selected few. It is a skill that each and every one should develop for personal growth and to improve relationships and interactions.

Everyone's brain is forever having thoughts and they are primarily with words. Words spoken, listened to or written affect your life as well as others. They have the power to create emotions and move people to take action. When verbal communication is delivered accurately and clearly, you activate the mind and encourage creativity.

You create your reality with your senses, the eyes, ears and feelings and words and symbols are used to create the meanings. This is why you are encouraged to read and watch informative materials, listen to motivational audio programs and attend classes or seminars that relate to your line of work or objectives. Positive and uplifting spoken or written messages motivate and inspire.
You can do the same to inspire others. Motivation comes from within each individual but you can become the source and when your are able to affect their thinking, you can help them improve their lives.

1. Verbal communication is communication done by word of mouth and face-to-face.

2. Three general telephone etiquettes when answering the telephone are:

1. Identify yourself, with your first and last name, when answering the phone.
2. Return phones calls within 24 hours, and apologize if the call is late.
3. Identify yourself when you place a call. Say your name, the company, business or department you represent.

3. The speaking style is problem-solving style.

4. Women are found to talk to create connections and intimacy.

5. The seven steps to creating an effective speech are:

1. Choose a topic
2. Define the purpose of your speech
3. Get to know your audience
4. Gather information for your speech
5. Organize your speech
6. Add an introduction to your speech
7. Add a conclusion to your speech

6. Skills an active listener should use (Any three):

1.concentrates on what is being said (doesn't read, shuffle papers or otherwise non-verbally communicate a lack of interest)

2.listens to all facts and tries not to interrupt until the speaker has concluded his/her statements. When someone is talking for a long period of time, it is sometimes helpful to either take notes or ask the speaker to stop so that you can feed back to them what you have heard.

3.listens for key words of interest on which to comment and ask questions (communicating that I am really interested and want to hear more or better understand what you are saying.) objective; hears people as they are, not the way you'd like them to be.

5.holds back personal judgments until the speaker has presented his/her ideas.

7. Effective feedbacks that a good communicator should use: (Any three)

· descriptive (not evaluative)(avoids defensiveness.) By describing one's own reactions, it leaves the individual fee to use it or not to use it as he sees fit

· avoid accusations; present data if necessary

· describe your own reactions or feelings; describe objective consequences that have or will occur; focus on behavior and your own reaction, not on other individual or his or her attributes

. suggest more acceptable alternative; be prepared to discuss additional alternatives; focus on alternatives

· specific rather than general.

Effective Non-Verbal Communication

Non-verbal communication consists of all the messages other than words that are used in communication. These symbolic messages are transferred by means of body posture, body gestures, and facial expressions, which all together are called Body language.

Body Language

Body language is the person’s expressions, behavior, body movement etc through which you can judge a person.

Body language consists of signs and symbols we send out by the small movements we make with our eyes, face and the way we sit, stand and move.

A recent study tells us that non verbal signals play a large part of any communication between people. But exactly how much?

According to the 10-40-50 principle, 10 % of the impression or impact comes from what we actually say, 40% comes form the way how we say it and the major par i.e. 50% coming from our body language.

Examples of Body Language

Brisk, erect walk
Standing with hands on hips
Sitting with legs crossed, foot kicking slightly
Sitting, legs apart
Arms crossed on chest
Touching, slightly rubbing nose
Rubbing the eye
Hands clasped behind back
Locked ankles
Rubbing hands
Sitting with hands clasped behind head, legs crossed
Open palm
Tapping or drumming fingers
Patting/fondling hair
Tilted head
Stroking chin
Looking down, face turned away
Biting nails

Top Ten Effective Body Language Tips

Eye Contact
Eye contact is one of the most important aspects of dealing with others, especially people we've just met. Maintaining good eye contact shows respect and interest in what they have to say.

Posture is the next thing to master, get your posture right and you'll automatically start feeling better, as it makes you feel good almost instantly. Next time you notice you're feeling a bit down, take a look at how your standing or sitting. Chances are you'll be slouched over with your shoulders drooping down and inward. This collapses the chest and inhibits good breathing, which in turn can help make you feel nervous or uncomfortable.

Head position
Head position is a great one to play around with, with yourself and others. When you want to feel confident and self assured keep your head level both horizontally and vertically. You can also use this straight head position when you want to be authoritative and what you're saying to be taken seriously. Conversely, when you want to be friendly and in the listening, receptive mode, tilt your head just a little to one side or other.

They give away the clues as to how open and receptive we are to everyone we meet and interact with, so keep your arms out to the side of your body or behind your back. In general terms the more outgoing you are as a person, the more you tend to use your arms with big movements. The quieter you are the less you move your arms away from your body. So, try to strike a natural balance and keep your arm movement’s midway. When you want to come across in the best possible light, crossing the arms is a no, no in front of others.

Legs are the furthest point away from the brain; consequently they're the hardest bits of our bodies to consciously control. They tend move around a lot more than normal when we are nervous, stressed or being deceptive. So best to keep them as still as possible in most situations, especially at interviews or work meetings

Body Angle
Angle of the body in relation to others gives an indication of our attitudes and feelings towards them. We angle toward people we find attractive, friendly and interesting and angle ourselves away from those we don't, it's that simple! Angles includes leaning in or away from people, as we often just tilt from the pelvis and lean sideways to someone to share a bit of conversation.

Hand Gestures
Hand gestures are so numerous it's hard to give a brief guide but here goes. Palms slightly up and outward is seen as open and friendly. Palm down gestures are generally seen as dominant, emphasizing and possibly aggressive, especially when there is no movement or bending between the wrist and the forearm. This palm up, palm down is very important when it comes to handshaking and where appropriate we suggest you always offer a handshake upright and vertical, which should convey equality.

Distance from others is crucial if you want to give off the right signals. Stand too close and you'll be marked as "Pushy" or "In your face". Stand or sit too far away and you'll be "Keeping your distance" or "Stand offish".

Yes your ears play a vital role in communication with others, even though general terms most people can't move them much, if at all. However, you've got two ears and only one mouth, so try to use them in that order. If you listen twice as much as you talk you come across as a good communicator who knows how to strike up a balanced a conversation without being me, me, me or the wallflower.

Mouth movements can give away all sorts of clues. We purse our lips and sometimes twist them to the side when we're thinking. Another occasion we might use this movement is to hold back an angry comment we don't wish to reveal. Nevertheless, it will probably be spotted by other people and although they may not know the comment, they will get a feeling you were not to please. There are also different types of smiles and each gives off a corresponding feeling to its recipient.

Types of Effective Listning

1. The non-listener

At this first level, the listener does not hear others at all. In fact, he does not even make an effort to hear what is being said. He manifests blank stares as well as nervous mannerisms and gestures. He fakes attention while thinking about un -related matters. He is too busy in preparing what to say next. So, primarily concerned with doing most of the speaking. He is typically disliked or “tolerated” by most people”

2. The Marginal Speaker

At this second level, the listener hears the sound and words but not really listening. They postpone problems into the future rather than dealing with them in the present. He is not able to recall or grasp what he has heard. He is easily distracted by their thinking or by outside occurrences

3. The Evaluative Listener

This third level takes somewhat more concentration and attention by the listener than the first two levels. At this level the listener is actively trying to hear what the speaker is saying but isn’t making an effort to understand the speaker’s intent. He tends to be a more logical listener who is more concerned about the content than feelings

This type of listener forms opinions about the speaker’s words even before the message is complete. This obviously leads to risks of not understanding the true meaning of the message.
4. The Active Listener

This is far by the highest and most effective level of listening. The active listener does not interrupt. He is always looking for verbal or visual clues that might signify that the other person would like to say something. When one appears, the active listener promptly gives the floor to the other person. He listens for feelings and emotions, as well as words from the speaker. He listens not only to what is said and how it is said, but also is perceptive of what is not being said. Above all he is a skillful questioner.
Active, effective listening is a habit, as well as the foundation of effective communication.
Therefore, follow these quick and easy steps to ensure that you not only hear but understand what is being said as well.

Be Prepared- It involves understanding the complexities of listening, practicing listening to difficult material and doing necessary background study. Reading appropriate material, background papers, and doing research before meetings assists in being ready to listen

Stop Speaking- Resist the urge to jump in and finish sentences. Clearly, you're a far more effective listener when you're not talking as it is difficult to listen and speak at the same time

The focus factor- This is the most obvious -- and most broken -- rule when it comes to listening. Be in the moment. Put other thoughts out of your mind. Remove distractions. Good listening means giving the speaker your undivided attention

Be patient – Be patient. Some people take longer to find the right word, to make a point or clarify an issue. Give the speaker time to get it all out before you jump in with your reply. Put the other person at ease. Give him/her space and time. How we look at them, how we stand or sit, makes a huge difference. So relax and let the speaker relax

Take notes-
Do not rely on you memory. While listening it is perfectly acceptable to take notes. However, when taking notes make sure to pay close attention, which includes making periodical eye contact, asking questions and understanding non verbal messages. Write down only key words or phrases, the things you will need to trigger the message instead of writing down complete thoughts sentences, which can distract you from listening.(obviously, remember to expand notes afterwards, while the meaning these key phrases is still fresh in your mind)

barriers of Communication

No matter how good the communication system in an organisation is, unfortunately barriers can and do often occur. This may be caused by a number of factors which can usually be summarised as being due to physical barriers, system design faults or additional barriers.
Have you ever been talking to some one and they misunderstood what you were saying? Or have you ever faced a situation of miscommunication?

Why do you think that happens?

This happens because of barriers in communication process. Anything which blocks the meaning of a communication is a barrier to communication. Barriers keep us from understanding other‘s ideas and thoughts. Barriers can appear at any point of communication loop.

Barriers to communication are things people say or do that are obstacles to good conversation or good interpersonal interaction. They are hurdles that do not bring discussion satisfaction. They are high-risk responses who impact on communication is frequently negative.

These hindrances are more likely to be destructive when one or more persons who are interacting are under stress. These roadblocks frequently diminish the other's self-esteem.
These roadblocks tend to trigger our defensiveness, resistance, and resentment.

They can lead to our dependency, withdrawal, feelings of defeat, or of inadequacy. They decrease the likelihood that we will find the solution to our problem. Each roadblock is a feeling-blocker. They reduce the likelihood that the we will constructively express our true feelings.
The repeated use of barriers can cause permanent damage to a relationship.

These twelve ways of responding are viewed as high-risk responses, rather than inevitably destructive elements of all communication. They are more likely to block conversation, thwart the other person's problem solving efficiency, and increase the emotional distance between people than other ways of communicating.

There are two types of barriers

Internal barriers- fatigue, poor listening skills, attitude towards the sender or the information, lack of interest in the message, fear, mistrust, past experiences, and emotions. Here is a list of or reasons why we sometimes find it difficult to take the risk and communicate our true attitudes and feelings to one another.

Fear of exposing my/our deep feelings and my/our weaknesses

Fear that the other person will not understand my feelings

Fear that the listener may hurt me by blaming me or putting me down

Fear of appearing less in the listener’s eyes

Fear of not being taken seriously

Fear of negative feedback from my partner or a fear of potential conflict

Fear of appearing self-centered

Fear that listener will not be able to cope with such disclosures or that I will not be able to cope with listener’s reactions

External Barriers- noise distractions, e-mail not working, bad phone connections, time of day, jargons, environment etc.

The choice of right channel helps the receiver understand the nature and importance of a Message

An effective communication takes place in the presence of common language between the
speaker and the receiver

Physical things that get in the way communication. For example: telephone, noise,
Uncomfortable meeting place etc.

Overcoming Barriers

"Discover why we misunderstand so often"
"Understand how several people can each hear something different"
"Learn how to gain clarity in your message"
"Learn how to allow your message to be accepted by others"
"Discover innovative new thinking tools for powerful self-communication"
"Effective Listing"
"Effective Specking"

Characteristics of Communication

Characteristics of Communication

1. Communication is Inevitable (unavoidable)

2. Communication Operates at Two Levels (content and relational)

3. Communication is Irreversible

4. Communication is a Process

5. Communication is not a (panacea) Cure-all (a remedy for all ills)

6. In Communication Everything Effects Everything Else
A communication system has 5 main components. All of which function together to create a helpful and create an operational system that properly communicates.
A Data Source : This where the data is originally made or sent from. An example of this could be a networked computer.
The Data Source then sends the data to the Transmitter: This is where the data is encoded into a form useful for the transmission medium to send.
The Transmitter sends the data along the Transmission Medium to a Receiver: There the data will be decoded from the form that it was sent in. This will enable the Destination to read the data in the correct format.
The Destination: This is where the data finally completes it's trip and arrives. The destination is simply the place where the data was directed to at the start of the Communication System.

Types of Communication

Types of Communication

Verbal Communication


Nonverbal Communication

Expressive behaviors
Body language
Verbal Communication: The basis of communication is the interaction between people. Verbal communication is one way for people to communicate face-to-face. Some of the key components of verbal communication are sound, words, speaking, and language.
Oral Communication: Communication skills include the mix of verbal, interpersonal and physical strategies needed to interact confidently and effectively with a range of audiences. A skilful communicator draws on a number of different means (e.g., graphical, visual, statistical, audio-visual and technological) to get the point across.
Effective oral communication skills help students to:

improve their own academic performance;
increase their employment options;
enhance their subsequent professional competence; and
improve their own personal effectiveness.
Written Communication : Communication through words may be in writing or oral. Written communication entails transmission of message in black and white. It mainly consists of diagrams, pictures, graphs, etc. Reports, policies, rules, orders, instructions, agreements, etc have to be conveyed in written form for proper functioning of the organization.

Written communication guarantees that everyone concerned has the same information. It provides a long-lasting record of communication for future. Written instructions are essential when the action called for is crucial and complex. To be effectual, written communication should be understandable, brief, truthful and comprehensive. The main advantages and disadvantages of written communication are as follows: -
Merits of written communication

• It ensures transmission of information in uniform manner.
• It provides a permanent record of communication for future reference.
• It is an idealistic way of conveying long messages.
• It ensures little risk of unauthorized alteration in the message.
• It tends to be comprehensive, obvious and accurate.
• It is well suited to express messages to a large number of persons at the same time.
• It can be quoted as legal evidence in case of any disputes.
Demerits of written communication

*It is costly and time consuming
*It becomes difficult to maintain privacy about written communication
*It is rigid and doesn’t provide any scope for making changes for inaccuracies that might have crept in.
* It is very formal and lacks personal touch
*It boosts red-tapism and involves so many formalities.
* It may be represented in a different way by different people.

E-mail Communication : E-mail may be the most important, unique method for communicating and developing relationships since the telephone. First of all, it is easy to use. People also find it familiar and safe because it is similar in many respects to writing letters - minus the annoyances of addressing envelopes, licking stamps, and trips to the mail box. Of all the methods for developing relationships on the internet, it is the most common - and perhaps the most powerful. Although friendships and romances may indeed begin in chat rooms, instant messagin, avatar communities, blogs, or other environments, these relationships almost always expand into e-mail as a way to deepen the communication. It is a more private, more reliable, less chaotic way to talk. Even when other online tools improve greatly by becoming more effectively visual and auditory - as in video teleconferencing - e-mail will not disappear. Many people will prefer it because it is a non-visual and non-auditory form of communication. After all, we don't see people rushing out to buy video equipment to accessorize their telephone, even though that technology has been available for some time.

E-mail is not just electronic mail sent via the internet. E-mail communication creates a psychological space in which pairs of people - or groups of people - interact. It creates a context and boundary in which human relationships can unfold.
Non-Verbal Communication:Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another. Most of us spend about 75 percent of our waking hours communicating our knowledge, thoughts, and ideas to others. However, most of us fail to realize that a great deal of our communication is of a non-verbal form as opposed to the oral and written forms. Non-verbal communication includes facial expressions, eye contact, tone of voice, body posture and motions, and positioning within groups. It may also include the way we wear our clothes or the silence we keep.
"Nonverbal communication has been defined as communication without words. It includes apparent behaviors such as facial expressions, eyes, touching, and tone of voice, as well as less obvious messages such as dress, posture and spatial distance between two or more people".

In person-to-person communications our messages are sent on two levels simultaneously. If the nonverbal cues and the spoken message are incongruous, the flow of communication is hindered. Right or wrong, the receiver of the communication tends to base the intentions of the sender on the non- verbal cues he receives.
Some major areas of nonverbal behaviors to explore are:

*Eye contact
*Facial expressions
*Posture and body orientation

Three Aspects Of Communication

Three Aspects of communication

1. Communication as ACTION: the transmission of information from one person to another through the use of symbols and their accompanying meaning.

2. Communication as INTERACTION: the exchange of information between two (or more) individuals through the symbols and their accompanying meaning

3. Communication as MEANING CONSTRUCTION: the process by which two or more individuals arrive at ostensibly shared (or common) meanings or understandings for symbolic actions.

Communication Process

Communication can best be summarized as the transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver in an understandable manner. The importance of effective communication is immeasurable in the world of business and in personal life. From a business perspective, effective communication is an absolute must, because it commonly accounts for the difference between success and failure or profit and loss. It has become clear that effective business communication is critical to the successful operation of modern enterprise. Every business person needs to understand the fundamentals of effective communication.
The communication process is the guide toward realizing effective communication. It is through the communication process that the sharing of a common meaning between the sender and the receiver takes place. Individuals that follow the communication process will have the opportunity to become more productive in every aspect of their profession. Effective communication leads to understanding.

The communication process is made up of four key components. Those components include encoding, medium of transmission, decoding, and feedback. There are also two other factors in the process, and those two factors are present in the form of the sender and the receiver. The communication process begins with the sender and ends with the receiver.

Sender- The communicator or sender is the person who is sending the message. There are two factors that will determine how effective the communicator will be. The first factor is the communicator’s attitude.It must be positive. The second factor is the communicator’s selection of meaningful symbols, or selecting the right symbols depending on your audience and the right environment.

Message - A communication in writing, in speech, or by signals

Channel - Messages are conveyed through channels, with verbal including face-to-face meetings, telephone and videoconferencing; and written including letters, emails, memos and reports.
Receiver- The receiver is simply the person receiving the message, making sense of it, or understanding and translating it into meaning

Feedback- Feedback is that reaction which can be a verbal or nonverbal reaction or response. It’s the feedback that allows the communicator to adjust his message and be more effective. Without feedback, there would be no way of knowing if meaning had been shared or if understanding had taken place
The communication process is the perfect guide toward achieving effective communication. When followed properly, the process can usually assure that the sender's message will be understood by the receiver. Although the communication process seems simple, it in essence is not. Certain barriers present themselves throughout the process. Those barriers are factors that have a negative impact on the communication process. Some common barriers include the use of an inappropriate medium (channel), incorrect grammar, inflammatory words, words that conflict with body language, and technical jargon. Noise is also another common barrier. Noise can occur during any stage of the process. Noise essentially is anything that distorts a message by interfering with the communication process. Noise can take many forms, including a radio playing in the background, another person trying to enter your conversation, and any other distractions that prevent the receiver from paying attention.

Communication Objectives

communication objectives - Goals that an organization seeks to achieve through its promotional program in terms of communication effects such as creating awareness , knowledge, images, attitudes, preferences, or purchase intentions.
The level of awareness and the attitude of particular target audiences which it is desired to achieve in a given period of time.


·To develop effective communication skills that enable the candidates to express, speak effectively, interpersonally and in large or small groups

· To develop awareness about the communication process

· To develop effective writing skills, enabling the candidates to write clear, concise, and audience-centered business documents

· To develop effective listening skills that would enable the candidates to comprehend instructions and become an active listener

Defination of communication

Defination 1 -"Any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes."
In simple terms, communication can be defined as actions whereby 'actors' impart information to one another.
Defination 2 -"Communication is the process of transmission of information of an originator to a receiver by means of the use of a message that it goes from one to another across a channel.
Defination 3 -"“It is a two way process of exchanging information and ideas from the sender to the receiver with the message being understood as intended by the sender”


“Any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person, information about that person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states”