Thursday, January 31, 2008

Four Leadership Roles

While some people were born to be leaders, most people learn how to lead by developing their ability to fulfill a leadership role. Successful leaders play four roles to reach their objectives. They are:

Visionary An effective leader has a vision of what an organization can become. The vision is future-oriented and consists of goals and directions. Leaders use passion to inflame others with their vision so that the work becomes important and possible.

Communicators An effective leader speaks and writes so that others understand what must be done. The communicator motivates and builds solidarity around the work at hand. They often share information to empower people to take action.
Producers An effective leader gets things done. A producer sees difficulties as opportunities, not as obstacles. A producer focuses on results and does not simply talk about them. They are often known for getting work done on time with high quality.
Facilitators An effective leader forges cooperative working relationships among cross-functional groups. The facilitator supports, empowers, and establishes confidence in an organization. They help people come together in a productive manner to complete a job. Since not all great leaders are born that way, most people need to work and improve their skills. By practicing the four roles of an effective leader, you will cultivate your own leadership abilities.

Theories of Leadership

Trait Theory
Leaders are able to lead effectively because of the personality traits they possess. Some of the traits are: charisma, intelligence, insight, confidence, influence, and business knowledge.
Equity Theory
Leaders motivate employees to work because they let their employees know their efforts will be rewarded fairly. Rewards can be adequate pay, benefits, perks, or even just compliments for doing well.
Behavioral Theory
Leaders combine reaching specific goals with building relationships with staff members. They focus on the tasks that must be achieved while considering the traits of the employees who need to achieve the goal.
Contingency Theory
Leaders adjust to each situation. Some leaders have better personalities to handle specific situations.

Situational Theory
Leaders adjust to the needs of the employees by providing sufficient support and direction for individual employees or groups of employees.

Benefits of Leadership

The Benefits of Leadership

Many management theorists agree that certain U.S. companies have lost their competitive edge because they haven't recognized the need for leadership rather than managership. Managership is a concept in which all decisions are made at the top, and employees are expected to comply with the policies made by the top-level decision-makers. Alternatively, leadership as a management concept is based on the assumption that work should be a system of processes in which leadership occurs, or is encouraged to occur, at every level. By definition, leadership contradicts the concept of top-down authority and is supportive of diversity and inclusiveness.

Management experts suggest that if leadership is a desired trait of those individuals in top-level positions, wouldn't it then be a desirable trait throughout the organization? In fact, if today's companies expect to be product- and customer-focused, rather than focused on policies and decision-making, leadership at all levels of an organization is critical. Listed below are some of the benefits that can result from a leadership management style.

Leadership views the organization as a dynamic system, supporting its work force rather than "overseeing" employees. Change is easily dealt with because the system is flexible.

Leadership emphasizes systems and practices that are proactive. Companies become innovative within their industries rather than merely reactive to industry and market trends.

Leadership encourages leaders to think of ways to involve everyone. This characteristic is particularly supportive of inclusiveness.

Leadership thrives on competition and looks forward to using creativity to meet the challenges brought on by a competitive business climate.

Leadership focuses on the work group or the team and on the product of the group effort, not on individuals.

Leadership encourages new ideas brought about by different viewpoints and the creativity of a diverse work force.

Leadership emphasizes the right things that employees are doing.

Leadership empowers others to make decisions.

Most importantly, leadership brings with it underlying assumptions that will support diversity and the changes required for businesses to be successful in the 21st century. As a result, the leadership concept of managing is more conducive to the type of workplace that management experts foresee as the successful model for the future.

Leaders and Managers

Leaders and managers are different. By definition, a manager works within a system to maintain existing goals and direction. They use people and equipment to meet a goal or they use a process to produce results.

A leader by contrast, sets the direction for projects. They bring vision to reality by gaining commitment from the people in the organization.

· Work within the existing culture
· Maintain existing relationships
· Plan and budget
· Organize and staff
· Control and problem solve


· Create visions and excitement
· Set a direction
· Align people
· Build new relationships and structure
· Motivate and inspire
While individuals might have a talent towards one versus the other, leadership and management are not mutually exclusive – great leaders can be great managers and vise versa. Obviously, there is tremendous advantage for someone who possesses both leadership and management skills to achieve great things.

This by no means implies that management is an easy task. Mastering the skills necessary to be an effective and efficient manager can take many years.

Successful organizations need both managers and leaders. Management activities are critical to any business. Most often, management is providing the “what” that needs to be done in the daily operation. Leadership provides the “how” those management activities get accomplished. Companies should have the “what” and “how” aligned for optimum results.

For example, when senior management shares the company vision with the workforce, they understand their role in the overall picture. This leads to greater employee buy-in and increased productivity. Then, the workforce is able to share feedback with senior management regarding processes/procedures that support the vision. This creates collaboration and greater efficiency.
The practice of leadership is a key business differentiator. Companies are looking for ways to grow their products/services, business relationships, and market share. How can you accomplish more with less? Leadership.

There are 3 common traits that leaders possess:

Inspire. Leaders create the energy for employees to do their best. They clear roadblocks and encourage creativity.

Communicate. Leaders keep employees informed about the organization. They build relationships at all levels in the organization.

Support. Great leaders create environments where employees feel safe to speak up.

The business environment is constantly changing, but the leadership component remains steadfast. It’s important for managers to work collectively to identify and develop leaders in the organization. The success of this collaboration has a direct impact on a company’s future

Wednesday, January 30, 2008

Types of Leadership

Action Centred Leadership

A model proposed by John Adair (1973) argued that it is not who you are but what you do which establishes you as a leader. A leader needs to balance the needs of the task, the team and the individual, shown clearly in the diagram below in his 3 circle model. The effective leader carries out the functions and demonstrates the behaviours appropriate to the circles, varying the level according to the needs of the situation. The leader whlist balancing the three circles, sits in his/her helicopter above the process, ensuring the best possible overview of what is happening.
Leaders Behaviour under Task

· Providing clear Objectives
· Providing appropriate procedures
· Ensuring there is evidence of progress
· Ensuring avoidance of digression
· Ensuring deadlines are met

Leaders Behaviour under Team

· Commitment
· Trust & Openness
· Sense of purpose
· Stability
· Cohesion
· Success
· Fun

Leaders Behaviour under Individual

· To be included
· To make a contribution
· To be respected
· To receive Feedback
· To feel safe
· To grow
Transformational Leadership

In James MacGregor Burns’ concept of ‘transforming leadership’ he states “leadership is relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents”. “It occurs when one or more person’ engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation or morality”. Transformational leadership is about the ability of the leader to motivate and empower their followers:

“The goal of transformational leadership is to ‘transform’ people and organisations in a literal sense – to change them in mind and heart; enlarge vision, insight, and understanding; clarify purposes; make behaviour congruent with beliefs, principles, or values; and bring about changes that are permanent, self-perpetuating, and momentum building” (Bass and Avolio, 1994)

Transformational leadership is frequently contrasted with ‘transactional’ leadership where the leader gains commitment from followers on the basis of a straightforward exchange of pay and security etc. in return for reliable work. Transactional leadership conjures a managerial image, while transformational leadership evokes images of extraordinary individuals such as Martin Luther King, Jr., or Ghandi.

Charismatic Leadership is one of the more recent theories on leadership. Although not many studies have been done so far to test them, these theories suggest certain different and interesting ways of looking at leadership.

Charisma is a special characteristic of some leaders. People usually feel personally attracted to a charismatic leader. And the attraction can lead to a powerful leadership.
Servant Leadership

“The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. He or she is sharply different from the person who is leader first, perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual power drive or to acquire material possessions. For such it will be a later choice to serve – after leadership is established. The leader-first and the servant-first are two extreme types. Between them there are shadings and blends that are part of the infinite variety of human nature.
Distributed Leadership

Distributed leadership is not a new idea nor a difficult one. It is essentially about sharing out leadership across the organisation. Referred to as ‘informal’, ‘emergent’, ‘dispersed’ or ‘distributed’ leadership, this approach argues a less formalised model of leadership (where leadership responsibility is dissociated from the organisational hierarchy). It is proposed that individuals at all levels in the organisation and in all roles (not simply those with an overt management dimension) can exert leadership influence over their colleagues and thus influence the overall direction of the organisation.

Leadership Styles and Behaviours

A different perspective to trait theory for leadership is to consider what leaders actually do as opposed to their underlying characteristics. A number of models and theories have been put forward to explore this.

T. McGregor (1906-1964) postulated that managers tend to make two different assumptions about human nature. These views he explored in his theory X and theory Y:
Theory X

The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he or she can.

Because of this human characteristic, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organisational objectives.

The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and wants security above all.
Theory Y

The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.

External control and threat of punishment are not the only means for brining about effort toward organisational objectives. People will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.

Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.
The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept responsibility but to seek it.

The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination. Ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organisational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed I the population.

Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilised.
there was a void in existing descriptions of leader behaviour. They did not provide specific guidelines for behaviour in varying situations. He and his colleagues isolated eleven leadership behaviours which fall into four broad categories:
Building Relationships

Managing conflict

Influencing People

Recognising and rewarding

Making Decisions

Planning and organising
Problem solving
Consulting and delegating

Giving / Seeking Information

Monitoring operations and environment
Clarifying roles

Leadership Traits

Leadership Traits

Leadership theories that attempt to identify the common traits possessed by successful leaders. These traits included:

· Adaptable to situations
· Alert to social environment
· Ambitious and achievement oriented
· Assertive
· Cooperative
· Decisive
· Dependable
· Dominant (desire to influence others)
· Energetic (high activity level)
· Persistent
· Self-confident
· Tolerant of stress
· Wiling to assume responsibility

Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership was developed to describe the way that leaders encourage and support their followers in achieving the goals they have been set by making the path that they should take clear and easy.
Leaders can take a strong or limited approach in these. In clarifying the path, they may be directive or give vague hints. In removing roadblocks, they may scour the path or help the follower move the bigger blocks. In increasing rewards, they may give occasional encouragement or pave the way with gold.
Path-Goal Theory of Leadership formulated by Robert House proposes that the leader can affect the performance, satisfaction, and motivation of a group in different ways:

Offering rewards for achieving performance goals
Clarifying paths towards these goals
Removing obstacles to performance
A person may perform these by adopting a certain leadership style, based on the situation:
Directive leadership: Specific advice is given to the group and ground rules and structure are established. For example, clarifying expectations, specifying or assigning certain work tasks to be followed.

Supportive leadership: Good relations are promoted with the group and sensitivity to subordinates' needs is shown.

Participative leadership: Decision making is based on consultation with the group and information is shared with the group.

Achievement-oriented leadership: Challenging goals are set and high performance is encouraged while confidence is shown in the groups' ability.
Supportive behavior increases satisfaction by the group, especially in stressful situations, while directive behavior is suited to uncertain and ambiguous situations. It is also proposed that leaders who have influence upon their superiors can increase group satisfaction and performance.

There is also evidence that more directive leadership is preferred by certain people under some circumstances as shown in the figure below:

Skills of Leadership

Leadership Skills
Integrity- the most important requirement; without it everything else is for nothing.

Having an effective appreciation and approach towards corporate responsibility, (Triple Bottom Line, Fair Trade, etc), so that the need to make profit is balanced with wider social and environmental responsibilities.

Being very grown-up - never getting emotionally negative with people - no shouting or ranting, even if you feel very upset or angry.

Leading by example - always be seen to be working harder and more determinedly than anyone else.

Helping alongside your people when they need it.

Fairness - treating everyone equally and on merit.

Being firm and clear in dealing with bad or unethical behaviour.

Listening to and really understanding people, and show them that you understand (this doesn't mean you have to agree with everyone - understanding is different to agreeing).

Always taking the responsibility and blame for your people's mistakes.

Always giving your people the credit for your successes.

Never self-promoting.

Backing-up and supporting your people.

Being decisive - even if the decision is to delegate or do nothing if appropriate - but be seen to be making fair and balanced decisions.

Asking for people's views, but remain neutral and objective.

Being honest but sensitive in the way that you give bad news or criticism.

Always doing what you say you will do - keeping your promises.

Working hard to become expert at what you do technically, and at understanding your people's technical abilities and challenges.

Encouraging your people to grow, to learn and to take on as much as they want to, at a pace they can handle.

Always accentuating the positive (say 'do it like this', not 'don't do it like that').

Smiling and encouraging others to be happy and enjoy themselves.

Relaxing - breaking down the barriers and the leadership awe - and giving your people and yourself time to get to know and respect each other.

Taking notes and keeping good records.
Planning and prioritising.

Managing your time well and helping others to do so too.

Involving your people in your thinking and especially in managing change.
Benefits of Good Leadership Skills
Your benefits from these leadership skills.

most employees highly motivated and highly committed

lower costs of turnover, training, absenteeism, sickness

a highly ethical, values-based culture with high morale

high creativity, low costs beat your competition

change, conflict, diversity and ethics problems disappear

your stress from managing people turns to satisfaction

an ability to turnaround a management disaster

30 to 300% productivity gains per employee

Leadership Quality

Leadership is nothing but the quality which makes a person stands out different from other ordinary employees. It is associated with such a person who has aggressiveness in speech and action, love for the employees, and who can handle pressure under different circumstances and a person who is always ready to fight for the rights of employee. A leader is useless without followers. It is the followers who make a person as a leader and if required overthrow him.
Leaders play a critical role during change implementation, the period from the announcement of change through the installation of the change. During this middle period the organization is the most unstable, characterized by confusion, fear, loss of direction, reduced productivity, and lack of clarity about direction and mandate. It can be a period of emotionalism, with employees grieving for what is lost, and initially unable to look to the future. In addition to forecast and amiability, the characteristics that leader must have are ability to recognize employees' talents, the know-how to make teams work and an open mind. Leadership does vary to some extent as per the positions i.e. it may be slight different for manager and different for a union leader but the basic qualities of leadership does not change.
1. Good communication skill Communication is the key to be a great leader. The reason for this is simple: if he possesses the other nine leadership qualities but if he fails to communicate well, he will never be great leader. What he can do is communicate with others in the organization about what IT can do to move the company forward. In other words, good communication is the key for developing good business relationships. If he can’t establish a good business working relationship, he is not going to be that leader, that team player. He will not be able to communicate how IT can add long-term value to the company. The modern leaders must therefore be equipped with good communication skill and use new ways to do effective communication.
2. Honesty The most valuable asset of a leader is honesty. He must be honest with both his employees and the management committee. Another part of his features is integrity. Once a leader compromises his or her integrity, it is lost. That is perhaps the reason integrity is considered the most admirable trait. The leaders therefore must keep it "above all else."
3. Visionary outlook Leadership qualities are different for different position. For a CIO he must be thinking for stabilizing the current business and always looking for future scope of expansion. He has to be able to look beyond where we are today, know where the business is going, and be able to use that vision to move the company forward. Being able to do this is a rare skill indeed.
4. Selecting a good team A good CIO although he possesses sound technical skills he assures that the team he selects is efficient enough to back up any skill he lacks. Choosing the best people for such team is a skill. A CIO after all is a human being and does not have answer for everything. But by working together he creates an atmosphere of mutual trust and respect; the team then always find the best solution.
5.Action speaks louder than words Managers must be able to put aside their concerns to listen to (and appear to listen to) those around them. As a result, they come know what is going on, and know what is both said, and said between the lines. They have the knack of appearing to know what people need even if those needs are not expressed directly. However, knowing what is going on, and identifying the needs of those around them is not sufficient. The responsive manager also acts upon that knowledge, attempting to help fulfill the needs of employees, superiors, etc. Responsive managers wield influence to solve problems for those around them, often before even being asked.
6. Ability to motivate people around A good leader must always keep motivating his team mates for good work and should maintain healthy environment. He must give first priority to safety of workers and see that they are not exploited by superiors.
7. Consistency Leadership effectiveness is impossible without consistency. Every leader has an approach that is unique to them. Don't change your personal style radically after all; it got you in a leadership position. Modify the rough spots but take care not to confound your staff by displaying inconsistency. Your expectations, though subject to modification based on ever-changing business needs, should remain as constant as possible. The business world is confusing enough without you adding unwelcome surprises into the mix. Keep things simple and consistent.
8. Ability to stand against critics As the success rate increases your critics multiply and become louder. Come to peace with the fact that you will always have a camp of people who critique every decision you make. They are generally the ones who are excellent problem-identifiers rather than problem-solvers. Develop your skills of repelling such critics so that they do not diminish your confidence or enthusiasm.

Leadership Style

Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction,implementing plans, and motivating people.

Situation-based leadership is founded on a top-down view of leaderhsip.

Traditionally it refers to how you manage people and make decisions.

But this view is past its use-by date.

When the notion of leadership style was first invented, writers on leadership did not differentiate between leadership and management. Today, we need to recognize that what used to be called leadership style is really management style.

Management style is about how you make decisions for your team.

The fundamental argument of this website is that leadership means promoting new directions, not managing people. You can promote new directions aggressively, by example or through any number of other influencing styles.

The only leadership style is influencing style

Direct appeals using logical arguments and evidence.

Expressing enthusiasm and conviction for your idea.

Making rousing speaches to large audiences with stirring images and music.

Quiet but persistent persuasion over time.

Enlisting the support of persuasive others.

Asking open questions designed to lead others to your conclusions.

Setting an example - the old adage ''actions speak louder than words'' is very true.

Unlike conventional notions of leadership, using authority is not a leadership style.

Authoritarian (autocratic) This style is used when the leader tells her employees what she wants done and how she wants it done, without getting the advice of her followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated.

Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power. This is not the authoritarian style...rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called bossing people around. it has no place in a leaders repertoire.
The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style.

Participative (democratic) This type of style involves the leader including one or more employees in on the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect.

This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything -- this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees. Using this style is of mutual benefit -- it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.

Delegative(free reign) In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decision. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks.

This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you have the full trust and confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!

NOTE: Also known as lais…sez faire (or lais…ser faire) which is the noninterference in the affairs of others. [French : laissez, second person pl. imperative of laisser, to let, allow + faire, to do.]

Tasks of Leadership

In this section, we will consider several common statements about the people who serve in leadership positions throughout our world. After you have read the statement, decide for yourself whether you feel it is true or false and why you think it is.

Here is the first one. True or false?
The only people who lead have some kind of leadership job, such as chairman, coach, or king.

Do you think that's true? Don't you believe it. It's true that chairmen, coaches, and kings lead, but people who hold no leadership position also lead. And you can find some people who have a leader's title and ought to lead. But they don't.

In other words, you are not a leader because you wear the leader's hat. Or because you wear the patrol leader's insignia on your uniform. You are a leader only when you are getting things done through other people.

Leadership, then, is something people do. Some people inherit leadership positions, such as kings, or nobles, or heads of family businesses. Some are elected: chairman, governor, patrol leader. Some are appointed, such as a coach, a city manager, or a den chief. Or they may just happen to be there when a situation arises that demands leadership. A disaster occurs, or a teacher doesn't show up when class begins, or a patrol leader becomes sick on a campout.

Try this statement. Is it true or false?
Leadership is a gift. If you are born with it, you can lead. If you are not, you can't.

Some people will tell you that. Some really believe it. But it's not so.

Leadership does take skill. Not everyone can learn all the skills of leadership as well as anyone else. But most people can learn some of them -- and thus develop their own potential.

You don't have to be born with leadership. Chances are, you weren't. But you were born with a brain. If you can learn to swim or play checkers or do math, you can learn leadership skills.

How about this statement. True or false?
"Leader" is another word for "boss."

Well, what do you mean by "boss"? A guy who pushes and orders other people around? No, a leader is not one of those. (But some people try to lead this way.)

Or do you mean a boss is somebody who has a job to do and works with other people to get it done? This is true. A leader is a boss in that sense.

True or false?
Being a leader in a Scout troop is like being a leader anywhere else.

This one is true. When you lead in a Scout troop, you will do many of the same things as any leader anywhere.

The important thing now is Scouting gives you a chance to lead. You can learn how to lead in Scouting. You can practice leadership in Scouting. Then you can lead other groups, too. The skills you will need are very much the same.

what Affects Leadership

What Affects Leadership?

Leadership is not magic that comes out of a leader's head. It's skill. The leader learns how to get the job done and still keep the group together.

Does this mean that the leader does the same things in every situation? No. Here's why.
Leadership differs with the leader, the group, and the situation.

Leaders -- like other people are all different. No leader can take over another leader's job and do it the same way.

Groups are different, too. A great football coach might have difficulty leading an orchestra. A good sergeant might be a poor Scoutmaster. So when a leader changes groups, he changes the way he leads.

Situations differ, too. The same leader with the same group must change with conditions. A fellow leading a group discussion needs to change his style of leadership when a fire breaks out. As a Scout leader, you probably can't lead the group in the rain the same as you do in the sunshine.

An effective leader, then, must be alert at all times to the reaction of the members of the group; the conditions in which he may find himself; and be aware of his own abilities and reactions.

Changing Meaning of Leadership

The Changing Meaning of Leadership

Leadership has always been based on power. For the conventional view, this means the power of personality to dominate a group.

But in our knowledge driven world, business is a war of ideas where the power to innovate and promote new products is the new basis of leadership.

Anyone with critical knowledge that could alter business direction can show leadership. This is thought leadership.

It can be shown by front line employees who don't manage anyone.

It can be bottom-up as well as top-down. It can even come from outside. It can be shown between organizations too as in market leadership.

Only management is a formal role.

Leadership re-invented is an occasional ACT, like creativity, not a role or position.

Those at the top sometimes lead, sometimes just manage. Other times they operate as venture capitalists investing in the best ideas (leadership) emerging from below.

Leadership is based on youthful rebelliousness, the drive of young people to challenge the status quo and find a better way.

Bottom-up or thought leadership is more like the actions of Martin Luther King Jr. than business leadership. His demonstrations had a leadership impact on policy makers in the U.S. government and, of course, they did not report to him.

This shows that leadership is really just about taking a stand for what you believe and trying to convince people to think and act differently.

What is Leadership

What Is Leadership?

Leadership is a process of getting things done through people. The quarterback moves the team toward a touchdown. The senior patrol leader guides the troop to a high rating at the camporee. The mayor gets the people to support new policies to make the city better.

These leaders are getting things done by working through people -- football players, Scouts, and ordinary citizens. They have used the process of leadership to reach certain goals.

Leadership is not a science. So being a leader is an adventure because you can never be sure whether you will reach your goal -- at least this time. The touchdown drive may end in a fumble. The troop may have a bad weekend during the camporee. Or the city's citizens may not be convinced that the mayor's policies are right. So these leaders have to try again, using other methods. But they still use the same process the process of good leadership.

Leadership means responsibility. It's adventure and often fun, but it always means responsibility. The leader is the guy the others look to to get the job done. So don't think your job as a troop leader or a staff member will be just an honor. It's more than that. It means that the other Scouts expect you to take the responsibility of getting the job done. If you lead, they will do the job. If you don't, they may expect you to do the job all by yourself.

That's why it's important that you begin right now to learn what leadership is all about. Wear your badge of office proudly. It does not automatically make you a good leader. But it identifies you as a Scout who others want to follow -- if you'll let them by showing leadership.

You are not a finished leader. No one ever is, not even a president or prime minister. But you are an explorer of the human mind because now you are going to try to learn how to get things done through people. This is one of the keys to leadership.

You are searching for the secrets of leadership. Many of them lie locked inside you. As you discover them and practice them, you will join a special group of people-skilled leaders.
Good exploring -- both in this handbook and with the groups you will have a chance to lead.

The Conventional View of Leadership
*Leaders in business lead AND manage
*They occupy positions of authority.
*The make strategic decisions.
*They use different styles of leadership.
*They are more or less participative.
*Their role is to ensure business profit.
*They strive to motivate performance.

Leadership as Discovery

Leadership as Discovery

Leadership = doing things different, either doing existing things better or doing different things.

In simple situations it isn't hard to see a better direction and advocate it to others.

Here, new directions are taken on the basis of discrete, conscious decisions.

In more complex situations, it is often necessary to discover new directions through trial and error.

Here, new directions emerge through someone discovering a new way of doing things.

New directions emerging through trial and error is totally different from changing direction based on an all-or-nothing discrete decision.

As organizational environments become increasingly complex, more and more new directions will have to emerge through trial and error (organizational learning).

Here, the leaders are those employees who, regardless of their status or influencing skills, discover new directions to pursue.

Wherever complexity reigns, organizations that encourage leadership from all employees will be more successful than those that restrict the leadership function to managers.

Psychology of Leadership

Leadership in the mind - the psychology of leadership

We spend a lot of time thinking about leadership - it must be important to us.

When things go wrong, we blame leaders - a useful scapegoat.

When we feel anxious or lost, we look to leaders to make us feel better.

Anxiety grows with work pressure, hence the growing cry for leadership.

What does it say about us that we so strongly need leaders?

Why do we need them so much?

How does our need for leadership differ from hero worship?

How can we grow and develop if we depend on leaders to save us?

We naturally form ourselves into hierarchies - just like all primates and a lot of other animals.

We disempower ourselves if we equate leadership with hierarchical position. Basically, managers occupy positions. Leaders are free-floating, somewhat rebellious, agents of change.

Traditional leadership theory is paternalistic - we want someone in charge of us who is a substitute parent - usually a father figure.

Admired leaders look after us, inspire us, make us feel good. We seek their approval, just like we did our fathers.

But this model of leadership is profoundly disempowering.

Hence why we need to get rid of it. Even if we can't erase our dependency needs, we can at least stop calling such people leaders. Soothing our anxieties is not leadership. Championing change, challenging the status quo as Martin Luther King, Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson Mandela did to their respective governments - that is leadership.

Being in charge doesn't make you a leader, just a manager.

Motivation Theories

Contribution of Robert Owen :
Though Owen is considered to be paternalistic in his view, his contribution is of a considerable significance in the theories of Motivation. During the early years of the nineteenth century, Owen’s textile mill at New Lanark in Scotland was the scene of some novel ways of treating people. His view was that people were similar to machines. A machine that is looked after properly, cared for and maintained well, performs efficiently, reliably and lastingly, similarly people are likely to be more efficient if they are taken care of. Robert Owen practiced what he preached and introduced such things as employee housing and company shop. His ideas on this and other matters were considered to be too revolutionary for that time.
Jeremy Bentham’s “The Carrot and the Stick Approach” :
Possibly the essence of the traditional view of people at work can be best appreciated by a brief look at the work of this English philosopher, whose ideas were also developed in the early years of the Industrial Revolution, around 1800. Bentham’s view was that all people are self-interested and are motivated by the desire to avoid pain and find pleasure. Any worker will work only if the reward is big enough, or the punishment sufficiently unpleasant. This view - the ‘carrot and stick’ approach - was built into the philosophies of the age and is still to be found, especially in the older, more traditional sectors of industry.

The various leading theories of motivation and motivators seldom make reference to the carrot and the stick. This metaphor relates, of course, to the use of rewards and penalties in order to induce desired behavior. It comes from the old story that to make a donkey move, one must put a carrot in front of him or dab him with a stick from behind. Despite all the research on the theories of motivation, reward and punishment are still considered strong motivators. For centuries, however, they were too often thought of as the only forces that could motivate people.
At the same time, in all theories of motivation, the inducements of some kind of ‘carrot’ are recognized. Often this is money in the form of pay or bonuses. Even though money is not the only motivating force, it has been and will continue to be an important one. The trouble with the money ‘carrot’ approach is that too often everyone gets a carrot, regardless of performance through such practices as salary increase and promotion by seniority, automatic ‘merit’ increases, and executive bonuses not based on individual manager performance. It is as simple as this : If a person put a donkey in a pen full of carrots and then stood outside with a carrot, would the donkey be encouraged to come out of the pen ?

The ‘stick’, in the form of fear–fear of loss of job, loss of income, reduction of bonus, demotion, or some other penalty–has been and continues to be a strong motivator. Yet it is admittedly not the best kind. It often gives rise to defensive or retaliatory behavior, such as union organization, poor-quality work, executive indifference, failure of a manager to take any risks in decision making or even dishonesty. But fear of penalty cannot be overlooked. Whether managers are first-level supervisors or chief executives, the power of their position to give or with hold rewards or impose penalties of various kinds gives them an ability to control, to a very great extent, the economic and social well-being of their subordinates.
Abraham Maslow’s “Need Hierarchy Theory” :
One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator.

As per his theory this needs are :
(i) Physiological needs :
These are important needs for sustaining the human life. Food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicine and education are the basic physiological needs which fall in the primary list of need satisfaction. Maslow was of an opinion that until these needs were satisfied to a degree to maintain life, no other motivating factors can work.

(ii) Security or Safety needs :
These are the needs to be free of physical danger and of the fear of losing a job, property, food or shelter. It also includes protection against any emotional harm.

(iii) Social needs :
Since people are social beings, they need to belong and be accepted by others. People try to satisfy their need for affection, acceptance and friendship.

(iv) Esteem needs :
According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power, prestige status and self-confidence. It includes both internal esteem factors like self-respect, autonomy and achievements and external esteem factors such as states, recognition and attention.

(v) Need for self-actualization :
Maslow regards this as the highest need in his hierarchy. It is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming, it includes growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment. It is to maximize one’s potential and to accomplish something.
As each of these needs are substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. From the standpoint of motivation, the theory would say that although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. So if you want to motivate someone, you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is on and focus on satisfying those needs or needs above that level.

Maslow’s need theory has received wide recognition, particularly among practicing managers. This can be attributed to the theory’s intuitive logic and ease of understanding. However, research does not validate these theory. Maslow provided no empirical evidence and other several studies that sought to validate the theory found no support for it.

“Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor :
McGregor, in his book “The Human side of Enterprise” states that people inside the organization can be managed in two ways. The first is basically negative, which falls under the category X and the other is basically positive, which falls under the category Y. After viewing the way in which the manager dealt with employees, McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to mold his or her behavior towards subordinates according to these assumptions.
Under the assumptions of theory X :

*Employees inherently do not like work and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it.
*Because employees dislike work, they have to be forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.
*Employees avoid responsibilities and do not work fill formal directions are issued.
*Most workers place a greater importance on security over all other factors and display little ambition.
In contrast under the assumptions of theory Y :

*Physical and mental effort at work is as natural as rest or play.
*People do exercise self-control and self-direction and if they are committed to those goals.
*Average human beings are willing to take responsibility and exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving the problems of the organization.
*That the way the things are organized, the average human being’s brainpower is only partly used.
On analysis of the assumptions it can be detected that theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals and theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. An organization that is run on Theory X lines tends to be authoritarian in nature, the word “authoritarian” suggests such ideas as the “power to enforce obedience” and the “right to command.” In contrast Theory Y organizations can be described as “participative”, where the aims of the organization and of the individuals in it are integrated; individuals can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards the success of the organization.

However, this theory has been criticized widely for generalization of work and human behavior.
Contribution of Rensis Likert :
Likert developed a refined classification, breaking down organizations into four management systems.

1st System – Primitive authoritarian
2nd System – Benevolent authoritarian
3rd System – Consultative
4th System – Participative

As per the opinion of Likert, the 4th system is the best, not only for profit organizations, but also for non-profit firms.
Frederick Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory :
Frederick has tried to modify Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory. His theory is also known as two-factor theory or Hygiene theory. He stated that there are certain satisfiers and dissatisfiers for employees at work. In- trinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. He devised his theory on the question : “What do people want from their jobs ?” He asked people to describe in detail, such situations when they felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad. From the responses that he received, he concluded that opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. He states that presence of certain factors in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to motivation. However, their nonpresence leads to demotivation. In similar manner there are certain factors, the absence of which causes no dissatisfaction, but their presence has motivational impact.
Contributions of Elton Mayo :
The work of Elton Mayo is famously known as “Hawthorne Experiments.” He conducted behavioral experiments at the Hawthorne Works of the American Western Electric Company in Chicago. He made some illumination experiments, introduced breaks in between the work performance and also introduced refreshments during the pause’s. On the basis of this he drew the conclusions that motivation was a very complex subject. It was not only about pay, work condition and morale but also included psychological and social factors. Although this research has been criticized from many angles, the central conclusions drawn were :

*People are motivated by more than pay and conditions.
*The need for recognition and a sense of belonging are very important.
*Attitudes towards work are strongly influenced by the group.
Clayton Alderfer’s ERG Theory :

Alderfer has tried to rebuild the hierarchy of needs of Maslow into another model named ERG i.e. Existence – Relatedness – Growth. According to him there are 3 groups of core needs as mentioned above. The existence group is concerned mainly with providing basic material existence. The second group is the individuals need to maintain interpersonal relationship with other members in the group. The final group is the intrinsic desire to grow and develop personally. The major conclusions of this theory are :

*In an individual, more than one need may be operative at the same time.
*If a higher need goes unsatisfied than the desire to satisfy a lower need intensifies.
*It also contains the frustration-regression dimension.
McClelland’s Theory of Needs :

David McClelland has developed a theory on three types of motivating needs :

Need for Power
Need for Affiliation
Need for Achievement

Basically people for high need for power are inclined towards influence and control. They like to be at the center and are good orators. They are demanding in nature, forceful in manners and ambitious in life. They can be motivated to perform if they are given key positions or power positions.

In the second category are the people who are social in nature. They try to affiliate themselves with individuals and groups. They are driven by love and faith. They like to build a friendly environment around themselves. Social recognition and affiliation with others provides them motivation.

People in the third area are driven by the challenge of success and the fear of failure. Their need for achievement is moderate and they set for themselves moderately difficult tasks. They are analytical in nature and take calculated risks. Such people are motivated to perform when they see atleast some chances of success.

McClelland observed that with the advancement in hierarchy the need for power and achievement increased rather than Affiliation. He also observed that people who were at the top, later ceased to be motivated by this drives.
Reinforcement Theory :
B.F. Skinner, who propounded the reinforcement theory, holds that by designing the environment properly, individuals can be motivated. Instead of considering internal factors like impressions, feelings, attitudes and other cognitive behavior, individuals are directed by what happens in the environment external to them. Skinner states that work environment should be made suitable to the individuals and that punishments actually leads to frustration and de-motivation. Hence, the only way to motivate is to keep on making positive changes in the external environment of the organization.

Goal Setting Theory of Edwin Locke :
Instead of giving vague tasks to people, specific and pronounced objectives, help in achieving them faster. As the clearity is high, a goal orientation also avoids any misunderstandings in the work of the employees. The goal setting theory states that when the goals to be achieved are set at a higher standard than in that case employees are motivated to perform better and put in maximum effort. It revolves around the concept of “Self-efficacy” i.e. individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a hard task.

Cognitive Evaluation Theory :
As per these theory a shift from external rewards to internal rewards results into motivation. It believes that even after the stoppage of external stimulus, internal stimulus survives. It relates to the pay structure in the organization. Instead of treating external factors like pay, incentives, promotion etc and internal factors like interests, drives, responsibility etc, separately, they should be treated as contemporary to each other. The cognition is to be such that even when external motivators are not there the internal motivation continues. However, practically extrinsic rewards are given much more weightage.

Motivating Manager

(1) Treat staff well :
Subordinates have to be treated with diligence. The manager has to stay friendly as well as maintain a level of distance with his staff. It’s a tricky ground to tread. The staff looks up on the manager as their leader. They expect maturity, rationality and understanding from their superiors. Simple things like calling people by their first name, chatting about their families for a while or even a general inquiry about their well-being, brings in a feeling of belongingness. Small gestures of this type help in building up of a cordial relationship.

(2) Think like a winner :
A manager has to handle two situations, “The Winning” and “The loosing”. The crux is to think like a winner even when all the odds seem against you. It is necessary to equip yourself with all the tools of a winner. Always remember that winning and loosing rotate in a cycle. If you have been loosing from a long time you are very near the winning edge.

(3) Recognize the differences :
All the employees in the organization vibrate to a different pace. A treatment that motivates one may demotivation the other. Understanding the difference in temperament in between the individuals is important.
4) Set realistic goals :
Set moderate goals. Setting too high a task creates a feeling of non-achievement, right from the beginning itself. The goals set should be such which seem feasible to the employees to be achieved. A slightly higher target than expected provides a challenge.
(5) Prevent Demotivation :
A job of the manager is to motivate people. His task requires him to punish and penalize people. This might create resentment in the mind of the staff members, which may affect the productivity of the workforce. Henceforth, care should be taken, that punishment and penalties are used as a controlling technique and that they do not demotivation.

(6) Job-financial enrichment and small job changes are handy :
To make job more effective and to break the monotonous routine, small task additions and minor changes are always welcome. Even small suggestions of the manager seem valuable to the employees. A few challenges in the same job can enrich it.
(7) Non-financial rewards :
Monetary rewards have always had a high motivational capacity. But non-monetary rewards are equally helpful. A thank you note, a letter of appreciation or even few words of praise can help smoothen the creases between the different levels of management.

Motivation and Satisfaction

Motivation refers to the drive and efforts to satisfy a want or goal, whereas satisfaction refers to the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied. In contrast, inspiration is bringing about a change in the thinking pattern. On the other hand Manipulation is getting the things done from others in a predetermined manner.
Hence, manipulation or external stimulus as well as inspiration or internal stimulus acts as carriers of either demotivation or motivation which in turn either results into dissatisfaction or satisfaction depending upon.

Types of Motivation

1) Achievement Motivation
It is the drive to pursue and attain goals. An individual with achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives and advance up on the ladder of success. Here, accomplishment is important for its own shake and not for the rewards that accompany it. It is similar to ‘Kaizen’ approach of Japanese Management.

(2) Affiliation Motivation
It is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Persons with affiliation motivation perform work better when they are complimented for their favorable attitudes and co-operation.

(3) Competence Motivation
It is the drive to be good at something, allowing the individual to perform high quality work. Competence motivated people seek job mastery, take pride in developing and using their problem-solving skills and strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles. They learn from their experience.

(4) Power Motivation
It is the drive to influence people and change situations. Power motivated people wish to create an impact on their organization and are willing to take risks to do so.
(5) Attitude Motivation
Attitude motivation is how people think and feel. It is their self confidence, their belief in themselves, their attitude to life. It is how they feel about the future and how they react to the past.
6) Incentive Motivation
It is where a person or a team reaps a reward from an activity. It is “You do this and you get that”, attitude. It is the types of awards and prizes that drive people to work a little harder.

(7) Fear Motivation
Fear motivation coercions a person to act against will. It is instantaneous and gets the job done quickly. It is helpful in the short run.

Motivation is not only in a single direction i.e. downwards. In the present scenario, where the workforce is more informed, more aware, more educated and more goal oriented, the role of motivation has left the boundries of the hierarchy of management. Apart from superior motivating a subordinate, encouragement and support to colleague as well as helpful suggestions on the right time, even to the superior, brings about a rapport at various work levels. Besides, where workforce is self motivated, just the acknowledgement of the same makes people feel important and wanted.

Tips for Self Motivation

If you want to make things happen the ability to motivate yourself and others is a crucial skill. At work, home, and everywhere in between, people use motivation to get results. Motivation requires a delicate balance of communication, structure, and incentives. These 21 tactics will help you maximize motivation in yourself and others.


1. Consequences - Never use threats. They’ll turn people against you. But making people aware of the negative consequences of not getting results (for everyone involved) can have a big impact. This one is also big for self motivation. If you don’t get your act together, will you ever get what you want?

2. Pleasure - This is the old carrot on a stick technique. Providing pleasurable rewards creates eager and productive people.

3. Performance incentives - Appeal to people’s selfish nature. Give them the opportunity to earn more for themselves by earning more for you.
4. Detailed instructions - If you want a specific result, give specific instructions. People work better when they know exactly what’s expected
5. Short and long term goals - Use both short and long term goals to guide the action process and create an overall philosophy.

6. Kindness - Get people on your side and they’ll want to help you. Piss them off and they’ll do everything they can to screw you over.

7. Deadlines - Many people are most productive right before a big deadline. They also have a hard time focusing until that deadline is looming overhead. Use this to your advantage by setting up a series of mini-deadlines building up to an end result.
8. Team Spirit - Create an environment of camaraderie. People work more effectively when they feel like part of team — they don’t want to let others down.

10. Recognize achievement - Make a point to recognize achievements one-on-one and also in group settings. People like to see that their work isn’t being ignored.

11. Personal stake - Think about the personal stake of others. What do they need? By understanding this you’ll be able to keep people happy and productive.
12. Concentrate on outcomes - No one likes to work with someone standing over their shoulder. Focus on outcomes — make it clear what you want and cut people loose to get it done on their own.

13. Trust and Respect - Give people the trust and respect they deserve and they’ll respond to requests much more favorably.

14. Create challenges - People are happy when they’re progressing towards a goal. Give them the opportunity to face new and difficult problems and they’ll be more enthusiastic.
15. Let people be creative - Don’t expect everyone to do things your way. Allowing people to be creative creates a more optimistic environment and can lead to awesome new ideas.
16. Constructive criticism - Often people don’t realize what they’re doing wrong. Let them know. Most people want to improve and will make an effort once they know how to do it.

17. Demand improvement - Don’t let people stagnate. Each time someone advances raise the bar a little higher (especially for yourself).

18. Make it fun - Work is most enjoyable when it doesn’t feel like work at all. Let people have fun and the positive environment will lead to better results.
19. Create opportunities - Give people the opportunity to advance. Let them know that hard work will pay off.
20. Communication - Keep the communication channels open. By being aware of potential problems you can fix them before a serious dispute arises.

21. Make it stimulating - Mix it up. Don’t ask people to do the same boring tasks all the time. A stimulating environment creates enthusiasm and the opportunity for “big picture” thinking.

Overcome Motivation Barriers

Job Analysis
More emphasis on personnel specification and regression analysis to determine weightage on job related individual characteristics.
Human resource accounting
Accounting IQ, EQ, personality traits, aptitude profiles of each employee
Selecting right man for right place at the right time.

Attitude change
Employee as human system having specific needs, aptitudes, temperament, attitudes towards job and the organization.
Role clarity
Well defined job description and work roles. Introduce role drama for role understanding for both lower level employees and the managers.

Periodical training to the employees about upgradation of skills, work role analysis and to the leaders about leadership development (communication, manipulation of incentives, decision making etc).
Periodical survey to study level of employee satisfaction , attitude towards organizational health and their relations to individual productivity and quality of working life for organizational diagnosis.. Introduce organization development programmes for attitude change in considering results of regression analysis.

Work culture
Introduce quality circle, suggestion box system, and intermingle organization to the life style of the employees.

Barriers of Employee Motivation

1.Attitude to employees

Considering employee as cog of the machine rather as a human system having unique needs, abilities, personality traits, values, aptitudes, skills etc.

2.Work Goal

Undefined, unachievable and unmeasurable


Job responsibilities are undefined, unachievable, unmeasurable and unrelated to work goal.


Leadership failure in manipulation of incentives.

5.Third party

Influence of informal communication systems through colleagues, unions and family members.

Motivating Working Environment

Motivating Work Environment

Make only the minimum number of rules and policies needed to protect your organization legally and create order in the work place.

Publish the rules and policies and educate all employees.

With the involvement of many employees, identify organizational values and write value statements and a professional code of conduct.

Develop guidelines for supervisors and educate them about the fair and consistent application of the few rules and policies.

Address individual dysfunctional behaviors on a “need-to” basis with counseling, progressive discipline, and performance improvement plans.

Clearly communicate work place expectations and guidelines for professional behavior.

Things to Remember-Motivation

Basic Principles to Remember
1. Motivating employees starts with motivating yourself It's amazing how, if you hate your job, it seems like everyone else does, too. If you are very stressed out, it seems like everyone else is, too. Enthusiasm is contagious. If you're enthusiastic about your job, it's much easier for others to be, too. Also, if you're doing a good job of taking care of yourself and your own job, you'll have much clearer perspective on how others are doing in theirs.

A great place to start learning about motivation is to start understanding your own motivations. The key to helping to motivate your employees is to understand what motivates them. So what motivates you? Consider, for example, time with family, recognition, a job well done, service, learning, etc. How is your job configured to support your own motivations? What can you do to better motivate yourself?

2. Always work to align goals of the organization with goals of employees As mentioned above, employees can be all fired up about their work and be working very hard. However, if the results of their work don't contribute to the goals of the organization, then the organization is not any better off than if the employees were sitting on their hands -- maybe worse off! Therefore, it's critical that managers and supervisors know what they want from their employees. These preferences should be worded in terms of goals for the organization. Identifying the goals for the organization is usually done during strategic planning. Whatever steps you take to support the motivation of your employees (various steps are suggested below), ensure that employees have strong input to identifying their goals and that these goals are aligned with goals of the organization. (Goals should be worded to be "SMARTER". More about this later on below.)

3. Key to supporting the motivation of your employees is understanding what motivates each of them Each person is motivated by different things. Whatever steps you take to support the motivation of your employees, they should first include finding out what it is that really motivates each of your employees. You can find this out by asking them, listening to them and observing them. (More about this later on below.)

4. Recognize that supporting employee motivation is a process, not a task Organizations change all the time, as do people. Indeed, it is an ongoing process to sustain an environment where each employee can strongly motivate themselves. If you look at sustaining employee motivation as an ongoing process, then you'll be much more fulfilled and motivated yourself.

5. Support employee motivation by using organizational systems (for example, policies and procedures) -- don't just count on good intentions Don't just count on cultivating strong interpersonal relationships with employees to help motivate them. The nature of these relationships can change greatly, for example, during times of stress. Instead, use reliable and comprehensive systems in the workplace to help motivate employees. For example, establish compensation systems, employee performance systems, organizational policies and procedures, etc., to support employee motivation. Also, establishing various systems and structures helps ensure clear understanding and equitable treatment of employees.

10 better ways to motivate employees

motivation example 1 - 'everyone is like me'

One of the most common assumptions we make is that the individuals who work for us are motivated by the same factors as us. Perhaps you are motivated by loyalty to the company, enjoying a challenge, proving yourself to others or making money. One great pitfall is to try to motivate others by focusing on what motivates you.

Marie, a director in her company, was being coached. She was a perfectionist. Every day she pushed herself to succeed and was rewarded with recognition from her peers. But she was unable to get the same standard of work from her team members. In the first few weeks of her coaching she would say, "If only people realised how important it was to put in 110% and how good it felt to get the acknowledgment, then they would start to feel more motivated".

But it wasn't working. Instead people were starting to become resentful towards Marie's approach. Acknowledgment was a prime motivator for Marie so to help her consider some other options, she was helped to brainstorm what else might motivate people in their work. Marie's list grew: 'learning new skills', 'accomplishing a goal as part of a team', 'creativity', 'achieving work-life balance', 'financial rewards' and 'the adrenaline rush of working to tight deadlines'. Marie began to see that perhaps her team were indeed motivated - it was simply that the team members were motivated in a different ways to her own.

If the leader can tap into and support the team members' own motivations then the leader begins to help people to realise their full potential.
motivation example 2 - 'no-one is like me'

Since the 1980's, research has shown that although we know that we are motivated by meaningful and satisfying work (which is supported by Herzberg's timeless theory on the subject, and virtually all sensible research ever since), we assume others are motivated mainly by financial rewards. Chip Heath, associate professor at Stanford University carried out research that found most people believe that others are motivated by 'extrinsic rewards', such as pay or job security, rather than 'intrinsic motivators', like a desire to learn new skills or to contribute to an organisation.

Numerous surveys show that most people are motivated by intrinsic factors, and in this respect we are mostly all the same.

Despite this, while many leaders recognise that their own motivation is driven by factors that have nothing to do with money, they make the mistake of assuming that their people are somehow different, and that money is central to their motivation.

If leaders assume that their team members only care about their pay packet, or their car, or their monthly bonus, this inevitably produces a faulty and unsustainable motivational approach.
Leaders must recognise that people are different only in so far as the different particular 'intrinsic' factor(s) which motivate each person, but in so far as we are all motivated by 'intrinsic' factors, we are all the same.
motivation example 3 - 'people don't listen to me'

When some people talk, nearly everyone listens: certain politicians, business leaders, entertainers; people we regard as high achievers. You probably know people a little like this too. You may not agree with what they say, but they have a presence, a tone of voice and a confidence that is unmistakable. Fundamentally these people are great sales-people. They can make an unmitigated disaster sound like an unqualified victory. But do you need to be like this to motivate and lead?

Certainly not. Many people make the mistake of thinking that the only people who can lead others to success and achieve true excellence, and are the high-profile, charismatic, 'alpha-male/female' types. This is not true.

motivation example 5 - 'but I am listening'

We are always told how valuable listening is as a leadership tool and encouraged to do more of it. So, when we remember, we listen really hard, trying to catch every detail of what is being said and maybe follow up with a question to show that we caught everything. This is certainly important. Checking your email, thinking about last night's big game and planning your weekend certainly stop you from hearing what is being said.

But there is another important aspect to listening and that is: Listening Without Judgement.
Often when an employee tells us why they are lacking motivation we are busy internally making notes about what is wrong with what they are saying. This is pre-judging. It is not listening properly.

Really listening properly means shutting off the voice in your head that is already planning your counter-argument, so that you can actually hear, understand and interpret what you are being told. See the principles of empathy.

This is not to say that 'the employee is always right', but only when you can really understand the other person's perception of the situation are you be able to help them develop a strategy that works for them.

Listening is about understanding how the other person feels - beyond merely the words that they say.
motivation example 6 - 'if they leave I've failed'

What happens if, at their meeting, Bob admits to Frank that he doesn't see his future with that company?

What if he says the main reason he is demotivated is that he isn't really suited to the company culture, and would be happier elsewhere? Has Frank failed?

Not necessarily. It's becoming more widely accepted that the right and sustainable approach is to help individual employees to tap in to their true motivators and understand their core values. Katherine Benziger's methodologies are rooted in this philosophy: Employees who 'falsify type' (ie., behave unnaturally in order to satisfy external rather than internal motives and drivers) are unhappy, stressed, and are unable to sustain good performance.

Effort should be focused on helping people to align company goals with individual aspirations. Look at Adam's Equity Theory to help understand the complexity of personal motivation and goals alignment. Motivation and goals cannot be imposed from outside by a boss - motivation and goals must be determined from within the person, mindful of internal needs, and external opportunities and rewards.

Sometimes the person and the company are simply unsuited. In a different culture, industry, role or team that individual would be energised and dedicated, whereas in the present environment the same person doesn't fit.

Sometimes 'success' doesn't look the way we expect it to. A successful outcome for an individual and for a company may be that a demotivated person, having identified what sort of work and environment would suit them better, leaves to find their ideal job elsewhere.

You succeed as a leader by helping and enabling people to reach their potential and to achieve fulfilment. If their needs and abilities could be of far greater value elsewhere, let them go; don't force them to stay out of loyalty. Helping them identify and find a more fitting role elsewhere not only benefits you and them - it also enables you to find a replacement who is really suited and dedicated to the job.

True leaders care about the other person's interests - not just your own interests and the interests of your organization.
motivation example 7 - 'the same factors that demotivate, motivate'

When asked what brought about lack of motivation at work, the majority of people in research carried out by Herzberg blamed 'hygiene factors' such as working conditions, salary and company policy. When asked what motivated them they gave answers such as 'the sense of achievement', 'recognition', 'the opportunity to grow and advance' and 'greater responsibility'.
Herzberg's findings about human motivation have been tested and proven time and gain. His theory, and others like it, tell us that the factors that demotivate do not necessarily motivate when reversed.
The conventional solution to dissatisfaction over pay levels would be to increase pay in the belief that people would then work harder and be more motivated. However, this research shows that whilst increasing wages, improving job security and positive working relationships have a marginal impact, the main factors that characterise extreme satisfaction at work are: achievement, recognition, interesting work, responsibility, advancement and growth.
So it follows that leaders who focus on these aspects - people's true motivational needs and values - are the true leaders.
motivation example 8 - 'people will rise to tough challenges'

Many managers hope to motivate by setting their people challenging targets. They believe that raising the bar higher and higher is what motivates.

Tracey was an effective and conscientious account manager. Her boss habitually set her increasingly tough objectives, which Tracey generally achieved. However, in achieving her targets last month Tracey worked several eighteen-hour days, travelled extensively overseas, and had not had a single weekend break. Sometimes Tracey would mention to her boss that the effort was taking its toll on her health and happiness.

When Tracey handed in her latest monthly report, her boss said, 'You see? It's worth all the hard work. So, don't complain about it again.'

Her boss's belief was that Tracey would get a sense of satisfaction from completing an almost impossible workload. He was relying on her sense of duty - which she had in bucket-loads - to get the job done.

But this is the KITA style of motivation. It doesn't really acknowledge a dedication to the job or a sense of pride. Its leverage or 'motivation' is simply a lack of choice.
Job enlargement is different to Job enhancement. Herzberg's research shows that improving the 'meaningfulness' of a job (see also motivation example 7) has the motivational impact, not simply increasing the amount of pressure or volume of the tasks.
motivation example 9 - 'I tried it and it didn't work'

When you try new things - new motivational ideas, especially which affect relationships and feelings - it is normal for things initially to get a little worse. Change can be a little unsettling at first. But keep the faith.

People are naturally sceptical of unconventional motivational approaches. They may wonder why you have suddenly taken such an interest in them. They may feel you are giving them too much responsibility or be concerned that changes in the way they work may lead to job losses. Herzberg's research is among other evidence, and modern experience, that after an initial drop in performance, people quickly adjust and respond to more progressive management and motivational attitudes.

Supporting and coaching people through this stage of early doubt is vital.
Encourage and help people to grow and develop, and performance improvement is inevitable.
motivation example 10 - 'this type of motivation takes too much time'

If you've absorbed the ideas above, you might wonder where you would find the time to motivate people using these approaches.

It is true that this style of leadership, sustainable motivation, commitment and focus is in the beginning more time consuming than 'KITA' methods; this is bound to be, since KITA methods require far less thought.

Engaging fully with your staff, understanding their wants, desires and values, getting to know them as individuals and developing strategies that achieve a continuous release of energy is more intensive and takes time to work.

But consider the advantages. This investment of time means you will eventually have less to do. Instead of constantly urging your people along and having to solve all the problems yourself, you'll be the leader of a group performing at a higher level of ability and productivity, giving you the chance to step back from fire-fighting and to consider the bigger picture.
Your responsibility as leader is to develop your team so that it can take on more and more of your own responsibility. A mature team should be virtully self-managing, leaving you free to concentrate on all the job-enhancing strategic aspects that you yourself need in order to keep motivated and developing.

Questionnaires on employee motivation

1. What is the 'primary aim' of your company?
Your employees may be more motivated if they understand the primary aim of your business. Ask questions to establish how clear they are about your company's principles, priorities and mission.

2. What obstacles stop employees performing to best effect?
Questionnaires on employee motivation should include questions about what employees are tolerating in their work and home lives. The company can eliminate practices that zap motivation.
3.What really motivates your staff?
It is often assumed that all people are motivated by the same things. Actually we are motivated by a whole range of factors. Include questions to elicit what really motivates employees, including learning about their values. Are they motivated by financial rewards, status, praise and acknowledgment, competition, job security, public recognition, fear, perfectionism, results...

4. Do employees feel empowered?
Do your employees feel they have job descriptions that give them some autonomy and allow them to find their own solutions or are they given a list of tasks to perform and simply told what to do?
5.Are there any recent changes in the company that might have affected motivation?
If your company has made redundancies, imposed a recruitment freeze or lost a number of key people this will have an effect on motivation. Collect information from employees about their fears, thoughts and concerns relating to these events. Even if they are unfounded, treat them with respect and honesty.

6. What are the patterns of motivation in your company?
Who is most motivated and why? What lessons can you learn from patches of high and low motivation in your company?
7.Are employee goals and company goals aligned?
First, the company needs to establish how it wants individuals to spend their time based on what is most valuable. Secondly this needs to be compared with how individuals actually spend their time. You may find employees are highly motivated but about the "wrong" priorities.

8. How do employees feel about the company?
Do they feel safe, loyal, valued and taken care of? Or do they feel taken advantage of, dispensable and invisible? Ask them what would improve their loyalty and commitment.
9.How involved are employees in company development?
Do they feel listened to and heard? Are they consulted? And, if they are consulted, are their opinions taken seriously? Are there regular opportunities for them to give feedback?

10. Is the company's internal image consistent with its external one?
Your company may present itself to the world as the 'caring airline', 'the forward thinking technology company' or the 'family hotel chain'. Your employees would have been influenced, and their expectations set, to this image when they joined your company. If you do not mirror this image within your company in the way you treat employees you may notice motivation problems. Find out what the disparity is between the employees image of the company from the outside and from the inside.