Monday, June 18, 2007

Training & Development Needs

Training & Development

What's Involved in Training & Development?

Training and Development has several different facets:
*Orientation training for new employees
*Teaching business and management skills for new hires or promotions
*Training in effective people skills (very important)
*Specific training for technical and professional skills

Assessing the Needs of Your Business for Training

As your business evolves and changes, your employees will need to keep pace with new developments. To do so, they may need to learn enhanced or additional skill sets.

By being proactive and supporting training and development on an ongoing basis, your employees will be able to work to their full potential and meet the changing demands of your customers.

To begin, you’ll want to assess whether you currently need to train your employees.

Changes in business

Has your business changed?

For example, if you’ve recently installed a point-of-sale program or upgraded your computer system, training can make the transition easier for staff and customer alike. As well, employees are more accepting of change if they receive adequate training.


Have you asked customers, managers or employees for feedback? You may discover some hidden training needs that translate into opportunities to improve service delivery.

Errors, complaints and frequent problems

Receiving complaints from customers or staff doesn’t necessarily indicate an employee is a lost cause and must go. Perhaps there is simply a deficiency that would be easily rectified with training. When errors or complaints are brought to your attention, analyze the problem to see if training might be a solution.

Training can provide tremendous advantages for your business. You can improve customer service or productivity, motivate your staff and keep your operation current. Remember to analyze your needs at the outset and choose the right type of training for your requirements.

Creating Training Plan.

Once you have assessed and prioritized the need for training, the next step is to plan and deliver the training. The factors you’ll want to consider include:
*Your budget
*Training delivery
*Mentoring/a buddy system
*Professional seminars
*Private trainers
*Conference attendance
*Types of Training

Impact on Business

Training can be costly, so you will want to assess its impact. However, sometimes its effect cannot simply be translated into bottom line dollars and cents.
You may need to review why you sought training to begin with and whether your concerns have been remedied. If the training was on customer service, the end result may be fewer customer complaints and/or see an increase in sales. Training on a new computer may net less errors or quicker processing.

Changes may not occur overnight, so it's important to be patient.

Analyze your Needs

Take the time to carefully analyze your needs when designing your training plan. This will help you choose the right type of training for your requirements.
Developing Your People

You may need training for specific purposes, such as a new booking system or food handling, but incorporating training that develops your employee towards a long-term career goal can help promote greater job satisfaction. And a more satisfied employee is likely to stay longer and be more productive.

If you have a performance appraisal program, it should cover not only your employee’s immediate training needs, but also the development required to groom your employee towards this career goal.

Career Development

Career development can include assigning a special project where your employee learns a new skill, taking on acting responsibilities during another’s absence, or cross-training. All of these areas of training and development can promote greater job satisfaction while lessening the likelihood of unwanted turnover.

Including Core Values
Remember that employees are people, and behind their actions are core values. They will also be influenced by your core values. If you can communicate your core values and include them in your employee training, you will by developing the ability of your people to make decisions that best complement the company.

Including Core Values

Remember that employees are people, and behind their actions are core values. They will also be influenced by your core values. If you can communicate your core values and include them in your employee training, you will by developing the ability of your people to make decisions that best complement the company.

Training Needs Identificatios

One of the fundamental requirements of any business is to identify the organisation needs clearly. However, very few organizations have an effective needs identification process in place.

We provide the know-how to different organisation on how to identify their needs. Not only do we provide the know-how, but we also train up their HR team to use it effectively.

training needs identification process allows organizations to not only identify their training needs but also helps them identify complete organisation needs in terms of closing the gap between the organisation vision and the reality.

Organization Needs Identification Methodology

*A cross functional team or a team consisting of HR persons will be formed for the purpose of carrying out the Needs Identification exercise
*A three-day training programme will be carried out for the team by the consultant. Besides training a detailed action plan will also be drawn up
*A toolkit will be provided by the consultant to the team
*The team will carry out the exercise of identifying the organisation needs
*The consultant will meet the team once a week to provide guidance/ hand holding

Employee Behavior Problems

Employee Behavior Problems

1. Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment is a legal term, created for the purpose of ending harassment and discrimination against women in the workplace. The term is constantly being redefined and extended in legislation and court decisions. However, not all sexual behavior in the workplace is harassment, and the laws against sexual harassment do not extend to situations outside the workplace or school.

The basic definition of sexual harassment comes from the United Stated Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC):

Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitutes sexual harassment when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual's employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual's work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment

Sexual harassment can occur in a variety of circumstances, including but not limited to the following:

*The victim as well as the harasser may be a woman or a man. The victim does not have to be of the opposite sex.

*The harasser can be the victim's supervisor, an agent of the employer, a supervisor in another area, a co-worker, or a non-employee.

*The victim does not have to be the person harassed but could be anyone affected by the offensive conduct

*Unlawful sexual harassment may occur without economic injury to or discharge of the victim.
The harasser's conduct must be unwelcome.

There are two legally recognized types of sexual harassment:

*quid pro quo sexual harassment:Quid pro quo sexual harassment occurs when an individual's submission to or rejection of sexual advances or conduct of a sexual nature is used as the basis for employment decisions affecting the individual or the individual's submission to such conduct is made a term or condition of employment.

*hostile environment sexual harassment.
Hostile environment sexual harassment occurs when unwelcome sexual conduct unreasonably interferes with an individual's job performance or creates a hostile, intimidating or offensive work environment even though the harassment may not result in tangible or economic job consequences, that is, the person may not lose pay or a promotion.

There are two conditions that determine liability for employers in cases of hostile environment sexual harassment

*The employer knew or should have known about the harassment, and
*The employer failed to take appropriate corrective action.

An employer can be held liable for the creation of a hostile environment by a supervisor, by non-supervisory personnel, or by the acts of the employer's customers or independent contractors if the employer has knowledge of such harassment and fails to correct it.

2. Drug and Alcohol

Access Drug Tests UK ( and UK supplier of pre-employment and employment on site drug and alcohol testing kits and services.

AngelScope Drug & Alcohol Testing Kits UK ( provide Drug and Alcohol testing kits and equipment for Professionals and consumer Use in the UK and Worldwide.
Avitar Inc ( offers employee drug testing solutions and programs to help companies eliminate employee drug-abuse.

Drug Testing Products ( Testing Kits at wholesale prices.
Employee Screening.Com ( provider of drug testing, background checks, and employee screening services, for businesses nationwide
eVeriTest ( Verification and Testing. Providers of compliance software for recording and maintain Drug & Alcohol testing.
Hiring Store ( of oral fluid drug screening products and pre-employment testing that assist employers in hiring better people; reduce shortage and lower employee turnover.
Intercept ( fluid drug test, the oral fluid solution to modern drug testing. This new testing service detects the "NIDA-5" drug panel (marijuana, cocaine, opiates, PCP and amphetamines) without the need to collect urine. Use the donor-friendly collection pad to collect the oral sample and send it to the laboratory for "next-day" reporting on negative results and 72 hours for confirmed positives.
Introduction to Pre-employment Drug Testing for HR and Security Professionals ( Les Rosen, President, Employment Screening Resources
MEDIMPEX United Inc. ( diagnostic testing supplies : drugs of abuse Hair, Saliva and urine

Mr. Test ( Drug Tests & Employee Drug Testin
Pre-Employment Drug Screening ( third party administrator for pre-employment drug tests for employers.

Premier InfoSource ( screening and drug testing services nationwide. Criminal background checks, driving records, credit summaries, SSN verifications and searches, employment, education and credential verifications. Drug testing in DHHS Certified Laboratories including urinalysis, hair, swab and cup tests. On-site testing available, convenient collection sites and MRO review. Secure web access, password protected client area, 128-byte encryption. One stop shopping for all employment screening needs.

Publications ( Employment Screening Resources

RandomWare ( complete random selection and data management solutions for drug and alcohol testing. Manage and track test result data for random selections, pre-employment and employee assistance programs including periodic, post-accident. reasonable cause, follow-up, return to duty and other reasons for testing.

S & G Associates, Inc. ( service provider of drug and alcohol testing services, including DOT mandated programs.

TestMall ( and other medical tests. All the tests are FDA approved and offer high accuracy. ( are a primary wholesale distributor offering the best combination of price and quality in maintaining a comprehensive inventory of the highest quality rapid diagnostic on-site test kits for drug alcohol.

3. Outplacement Services

Outplacement/Transition Services

CAC Management Consultants International ( international executive development consultancy specialising in executive development, corporate training, outplacement, career coaching and executive coaching. We can provide quality services in 15 countries throughout the Asia Pacific Region, US & UK through our strategic alliances who are our local partners in Australia, New Zealand, USA, UK, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Hong Kong, India, Korea & Japan.

Capita People Development ( leader offering flexible group and individual outplacement, transition services and career management solutions.

CareerLab ( & Assessment, Executive Coaching, Leadership Development, and Outplacement.

Continental Search and Outplacement, Inc. (

The Human Resource Store ( Human Resource Store assists employers with Outplacement transition planning when the need arises. These services can be performed on-site, or they can be web based services as well.

King & Bishop ( human resource consulting and outplacement firm.

LEE HECHT HARRISON ( Outplacement/Career Transition Service, Coaching and Leadership Consulting Services to individuals and groups with our 180 offices worldwide. Our Greater China office is located in Hong Kong.

Outplacement Consultant Services ( your legal risk by offering your terminated employees professional, caring, and affordable career or retirement coaching services. Through individual coaching your transitioning employees will cope better emotionally and create a new career or life plan.

Phoenix Career Group ( career-minded professionals to the most senior executive managers, the Phoenix Career Group is a one-of-a-kind consortium of industry-leading professionals specializing in personal branding, resume writing, career management coaching, research, and distribution.

PowerTransitions ( is a leading independent outplacement and change management firm, serving clients in the greater San Francisco Bay Area and nationwide.

Quest Outplacement ( specializes in providing affordable one-on-one outplacement services. Whether you are downsizing 1 or 100 employees, we can provide your company with the means to offer them effective outplacement services.

4.Termination and Dismissal

Alaniz & Schraeder, LLP ( specialists in managing all manner of workplace claims with a specialized focus on succesful resolution of wrongful termination claims.

Anton, Gordon, & Monje ( employers, insurance carriers and third party administrators for over 20 years.

Kenney & Markowitz L.L.P. ( specialization in LABOR and EMPLOYMENT matters offers our clients certain unique services.

Kevin R. Madison ( cases of Wrongful Discharge by Employer in Retaliation for an Employee Filing a Workers Compensation Claim

Miller Law Group ( place where HR professionals and employers can go to find answers about handling termination and dismissal. A Reading Room provides interesting articles and newsletter pieces on various topics in employment law on the side of the employer and HR professional.

Morris Law Firm ( association of attorneys, located in Costa Mesa, California, with practice areas including business litigation, employment law, first amendment law, discrimination claims, defamation suits and bankruptcy.

Retire On Purpose ( your legal risk by offering your terminated employees professional, caring, and affordable career or retirement coaching services. Through individual coaching your transitioning employees will cope better emotionally and create a new career or life plan. ( psychological and legal expertise to help employers eliminate unnecessary employment liability and increase retention and productivity. Offers in-house and online harassment/discrimination prevention, conflict resolution, performance management consulting, and management development.

5.Workplace Violence

Canadian Initiative on Workplace Violence ( official web site of the Canadian Initiative on Workplace Violence (CIWV) where we strive to help Canadian organizations "profit through prevention" in their efforts to curb workplace violence.

CARM™ Workplace Violence Training ( providing your people with CARM training, you are offering them an opportunity to develop skills and techniques that could save not only themselves in workplace situations, but also their friends and loved ones at the ball game, or shopping mall, or just waiting in line for gas.

Coastal Training Technologies Corp. ('s workplace violence training programs will teach your employees and managers these valuable skills, including how to respond to and manage violent incidents.

Conflict Avoidance for Workplace ( group of ADR professionals led by Dr. Frank Hanna, Esq. with the purpose of training, and services directed towards conflict avoidence in the workplace.

HR Managment Solutions Inc. ( Violence Prevention Consultants.

Extreme Behavioral Risk Management LLC ( Behavioral Risk Management, LLC (XBRM) is a crisis management consultancy specialized in facilitating organizational preparedness and mitigating the emotional and behavioral consequences of critical incidents. XBRM helps clients predict and prepare for the critical behavioral aspects of all phases of emergency management. Our multi-disciplinary team assists corporations, governmental and non-governmental organizations worldwide. XBRM provides a comprehensive menu of diverse products and services tailored to each client’s particular culture and risks.

HR Proactive Inc. ( Violence Prevention for Managers Training

Workplace Violence & Harassment Prevention Program ( through Threat Assessment and Management Associates Inc. is comprised of three distinct courses that meet or exceed legislated, regulated, and typical best practice requirements.

Workplace Violence Headquarters ( the nature & scope of workplace violence ... provides a guide to identifying the warning signs & triggering events of incidents ... and has access to on-site training programs.

Workplaceviolence911 ( site is a comprehensive source of information on workplace violence including articles, resource center, model policies, workplace violence prevention policymaker software and much more.

Workplace Violence 101 ( web site dedicated to the awareness and prevention of workplace violence.

Workplace Violence Prevention ( seminar for Awareness, Prevention, and Survival



Compensation is a systematic approach to providing monetary value to employees in exchange for work performed. Compensation may achieve several purposes assisting in recruitment, job performance, and job satisfaction.

Chapter Highlights

1. How is compensation used?
2. What are the components of a compensation system?
3. What are different types of compensation?

How is compensation used?
Compensation is a tool used by management for a variety of purposes to further the existance of the company. Compensation may be adjusted according the the business needs, goals, and available resources.

Compensation may be used to:

*recruit and retain qualified employees.
*increase or maintain morale/satisfaction.
*reward and encourage peak performance.
*achieve internal and external equity.
*reduce turnover and encourage company loyalty.
*modify (through negotiations) practices of unions

Recruitment and retention of qualified employees is a common goal shared by many employers. To some extent, the availability and cost of qualified applicants for open positions is determined by market factors beyond the control of the employer. While an employer may set compensation levels for new hires and advertize those salary ranges, it does so in the context of other employers seeking to hire from the same applicant pool.

Morale and job satisfaction are affected by compensation. Often there is a balance (equity) that must be reached between the monetary value the employer is willing to pay and the sentiments of worth felt be the employee. In an attempt to save money, employers may opt to freeze salaries or salary levels at the expence of satisfaction and morale. Conversely, an employer wishing to reduce employee turnover may seek to increase salaries and salary levels.

Compensation may also be used as a reward for exceptional job performance. Examples of such plans include: bonuses, commissions, stock, profit sharing, gain sharing.

What are the components of a compensation system?

Compensation will be perceived by employees as fair if based on systematic components. Various compensation systems have developed to determine the value of positions. These systems utilize many similar components including job descriptions, salary ranges/structures, and written procedures.

The components of a compensation system include:

Job Descriptions A critical component of both compensation and selection systems, job descriptions define in writing the responsibilities, requirements, functions, duties, location, environment, conditions, and other aspects of jobs. Descriptions may be developed for jobs individually or for entire job families

Job Analysis: The process of analyzing jobs from which job descriptions are developed. Job analysis techniques include the use of interviews, questionnaires, and observation.

Job Evaluation: A system for comparing jobs for the purpose of determining appropriate compensation levels for individual jobs or job elements. There are four main techniques:

Ranking, Classification, Factor Comparison, and Point Methodd.

*Pay Structures :Useful for standardizing compensation practices. Most pay structures include several grades with each grade containing a minimum salary/wage and either step increments or grade range. Step increments are common with union positions where the pay for each job is pre-determined through collective bargaining.

*Salary Surveys Collections of salary and market data. May include average salaries, inflation indicators, cost of living indicators, salary budget averages. Companies may purchase results of surveys conducted by survey vendors or may conduct their own salary surveys. When purchasing the results of salary surveys conducted by other vendors, note that surveys may be conducted within a specific industry or across industries as well as within one geographical region or across different geographical regions. Know which industry or geographic location the salary results pertain to before comparing the results to your company.

*Policies and Regulations

What are different types of compensation

*Base Pay
*Overtime Pay
*Bonuses, Profit Sharing, Merit Pay
*Stock Options
*Travel/Meal/Housing Allowance
*Benefits including: dental, insurance, medical, vacation, leaves, retirement, taxes...

What are regulations affecting compensation?

Compensation Plans

Develop a program outline.

*Set an objective for the program.
*Establish target dates for implementation and completion.
*Determine a budget.

Designate an individual to oversee designing the compensation program.

*Determine whether this position will be permanent or temporary.
*Determine who will oversee the program once it is established.
*Determine the cost of going outside versus looking inside.
*Determine the cost of a consultant's review.

Develop a compensation philosophy.

*Form a compensation committee (presumably consisting of officers or at least including one officer of the company).
*Decide what, if any, differences should exist in pay structures for executives, professional employees, sales employees, and so on (e.g., hourly versus salaried rates, incentive-based versus noncontingent pay).
*Determine whether the company should set salaries at, above, or below market.
*Decide the extent to which employee benefits should replace or supplement cash compensation.

Conduct a job analysis of all positions.

*Conduct a general task analysis by major departments. What tasks must be accomplished by whom?
*Get input from senior vice presidents of marketing, finance, sales, administration, production, and other appropriate departments to determine the organizational structure and primary functions of each.
*Interview department managers and key employees, as necessary, to determine their specific job functions.
*Decide which job classifications should be exempt and which should be nonexempt.
*Develop model job descriptions for exempt and nonexempt positions and distribute the models to incumbents for review and comment; adjust job descriptions if necessary.
*Develop a final draft of job descriptions.
Meet with department managers, as necessary, to review job descriptions.
*Finalize and document all job descriptions.

Evaluate jobs.

*Rank the jobs within each senior vice president's and manager's department, and then rank jobs between and among departments.
*Verify ranking by comparing it to industry market data concerning the ranking, and adjust if necessary.
*Prepare a matrix organizational review.
On the basis of required tasks and forecasted business plans, develop a matrix of jobs crossing lines and departments.
*Compare the matrix with data from both the company structure and the industrywide market.
*Prepare flow charts of all ranks for each department for ease of interpretation and assessment.
*Present data and charts to the compensation committee for review and adjustment

Determine grades.

*Establish the number of levels - senior, junior, intermediate, and beginner - for each job family and assign a grade to each level.
*Determine the number of pay grades, or monetary range of a position at a particular level,
within each department.

Establish grade pricing and salary range.

*Establish benchmark (key) jobs.
*Review the market price of benchmark jobs within the industry.
*Establish a trend line in accordance with company philosophy (i.e., where the company wants to be in relation to salary ranges in the industry).

Determine an appropriate salary structure.

*Determine the difference between each salary step.
*Determine a minimum and a maximum percent spread.
*Slot the remaining jobs.
*Review job descriptions.
*Verify the purpose, necessity, or other reasons for maintaining a position.
*Meet with the compensation committee for review, adjustments, and approval.

Develop a salary administration policy.

*Develop and document the general company policy.
*Develop and document specific policies for selected groups.
*Develop and document a strategy for merit raises and other pay increases, such as cost-of-living adjustments, bonuses, annual reviews, and promotions.
*Develop and document procedures to justify the policy (e.g., performance appraisal forms, a merit raise schedule).
*Meet with the compensation committee for review, adjustments, and approval

Communicate the final program to employees and managers.

*Present the plan to the compensation committee for feedback, adjustments, review, and approval.
*Make a presentation to executive staff managers for approval or change, and incorporate necessary changes.
*Develop a plan for communicating the new program to employees, using slide shows or movies, literature, handouts, etc.
*Make presentations to managers and employees. Implement the program.
Design and develop detailed systems, procedures, and forms.
*Work with HR information systems staff to establish effective implementation procedures, to develop appropriate data input forms, and to create effective monitoring reports for senior managers.
*Have the necessary forms printed.
*Develop and determine format specifications for all reports.
*Execute test runs on the human resources information system.
*Execute the program.

Monitor the program.

*Monitor feedback from managers.
*Make changes where necessary.
*Find flaws or problems in the program and adjust or modify where necessary.

"Job Analysis"

Job Analysis "The Job Analysis Interview: method to collect a variety of information from an incumbent by asking the incumbent to describe the tasks and duties performed. "

First, let's look at some terms. A job is a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an employee is responsible to conduct. Jobs have titles. A task is a typically defined as a unit of work, that is, a set of activities needed to produce some result, e.g., vacuuming a carpet, writing a memo, sorting the mail, etc. Complex positions in the organization may include a large number of tasks, which are sometimes referred to as functions. Job descriptions are lists of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. Typically, they also include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications needed by the person in the job, salary range for the position, etc. Job descriptions are usually developed by conducting a job analysis, which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job. The analysis looks at the areas of knowledge and skills needed by the job. Note that a role is the set of responsibilities or expected results associated with a job. A job usually includes several roles.

Allows the incumbent to describe tasks and duties that are not observable.

The incumbent may exaggerate or omit tasks and duties.

Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgements are made about data collected on a job.

The Job; not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person

Purpose of Job Analysis

The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal.

Determining Training Needs

Job Analysis can be used in training/"needs assessment" to identify or develop

*training content
*assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training
*equipment to be used in delivering the training
*methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom...)

Compensation Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:

*skill levels
*compensable job factors
*work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)
*responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)
*required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)

Selection Procedures Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop:

*job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;
*appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate;
*minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants;
interview questions;
*selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);
*applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;
*orientation materials for applicants/new hires

Performance Review Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop

*goals and objectives
*performance standards
*evaluation criteria
*length of probationary periods
*duties to be evaluated

Methods of Job Analysis:

Several methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These include of job classification systems:

The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) was developed in response to the demand for standardized occupational information to support an expanding public employment service. The U.S. Employment Service established a Federal-State employment service system, and initiated an occupational research program, utilizing analysts located in numerous field offices throughout the country, to collect the information required. The use of this information has expanded from job matching applications to various uses for employment counseling, occupational and career guidance, and labor market information services

In order to properly match jobs and workers, the public employment service system requires that a uniform occupational language be used in all of its local job service offices. Occupational analysts collect data provided to job interviewers to systematically compare and match the specifications of employer job openings with the qualifications of applicants who are seeking jobs through its facilities.

The first edition of the DOT, published in 1939, contained approximately 17,500 job definitions. Blocks of jobs were assigned 5- or 6-digit codes which placed them in one of 550 occupational groups and indicated whether the jobs were skilled, semi-skilled, or unskilled.

The latest edition of the DOT published in 1977, contained over 2,100 new occupational definitions and several thousand other definitions were substantially modified or combined with related definitions. In order to document these changes, approximately 75,000 on-site job analysis studies were conducted from 1965 to the mid-1970's. These studies, supplemented by information obtained through extensive contacts with professional and trade associations, reflected the restructuring of the economy at that time.

2 Incumbent interviews:

Interview Methods

Unstructured Interviews Here the interview is a conversation with no prepared questions or predetermined line of investigation. However, the interviewer should explain:
the purpose of the study is and the particular focus of this interview.

The roles and the purposes give structure. The interviewer generally uses a questionning strategy to explore the work the job holder performs. Listening and taking notes are very important. These enable follow up questions to be posed. The questions and responses - with summaries enable the interview to be controlled. The conversation takes on a structure with areas being considered, explored, related to each other and revisited to secure the depth of information required in job analysis.

An unstructured interview involves question and response and may be free flowing but it becomes structured in the sense that the interviewer has a purpose and needs skill to

establish a relationship.
*ask well-structured questions to generate a conversational flow in which the interviewee offers information - factual, opinion, subjective and objective about aspects of the job
*to ensure information recieved is heard and understood - listening, clarifying and reflective summarising

Effective listening requires concentration and this can be disturbed by interruptions, the interviewer's own thought processes and dificulty in remaining neutral about what is being said. Notes need to be taken without loss of good eye contact. Cues need to be picked up so that further questions can be asked to probe issues and areas of interest.

Structured Interviews : A structured interview may assume a definite format involving:

*charting a job-holder's sequence of activities in performance
*an inventory or questionnaire may be used

Care is needed to set up such interactions. A specialist analyst is not involved and participants need to know what they are doing, why and what is expected as a result. They may be intrained as interviewers and not structure the interview as recommended. Notes and records may be needed for subsequent analysis.

A structured interview may be akin to a staff appraisal or job evaluation interview carried out by a manager with a subordinate. The manager is the analyst

Interview Outcomes

Interviewing is a flexible method for all levels and types of job. An interview may focus on what a hypothetical job might involve.

Interviews generate descriptive data and enable job-holders to interpret their activities. A good interviewer can probe sensitive areas in more depth. Structured questionnaires cannot easily do this. Jobholders can give overviews of their work and offer their perceptions and feelings about their job and the environment. Rigid questionnaires tend to be less effective where the more affective aspects of work are concerned.

However information from different interviews can be

*hard to bring together
*there is potential for interviewer bias
*certain areas of the work may fail to be picked up
*an interview may stress one area and neglect others.
*there are problems in interpretation and analysis with the possibility of distorted impressions
*the subjectivity of the data captured needs to be considered

Interviewing as the sole method of job analysis in any particular project has disadvantages. Interviews are time consuming and training is needed. Co-counselling may remove the analyst and enable jobholders to discuss work between themselves. Through inexperience however they may miss items and there is the natural problem of people not establishing and maintaining rapport with each other during an interview.

Check out the Job Analysis Interview Guidee

Conducting the InterviewOften an employee may feel uncomfortable being interviewed for a Job Analysis. The employee may feel that the results of the job analysis will adversely affect them in terms of salary or working conditions.

Help the employee feel welcome and at ease. Break the ice by being warm and welcoming. Offer coffee or water, offer to take their coat, ask if they had any trouble finding your office. A few minutes of pleasant general talk will set a positive tone for the interview.

Arrange a private place forthe interview, and make arrangements so that you are not interrupted and so the employee may speak candidly about their job.

Give the employee an overview of the interview procedure. Take a few minutes to recap the essential functions of the job, and to explain why this analysis is important.

Let the employee know that you may need a few minutes every now and then to jot down their comments or your thoughts -- explain that your notes will be helpful later as you prepare the description of the job.

Carefully Construct Interview Questions

Questions should be open-ended. Open-ended questions provide a framework in which to respond, yet leave the responsibility with the employee to determine the level of detail to provide in the response


"Describe how you balance the monthly accounting report."
Avoid "yes-no" questions, unless they are the best way to get right to the point of an essential duty.


"Have you ever used power tools when performing electrical work?

In developing interview questions, it is important to ensure that questions are:

*Realistic given the requirements of the job
*Complex enough to allow adequate demonstration of the KSAs being assessed
*Stated in a straightforward unambiguous manner
*Formulated at the language level appropriate for the employee being interviewed

Physical Abilities Tests:


Fitness for the job Rejection of an applicant for failing a physical abilities test must be based on a determination of the individual's fitness for the job not on a general determination on the disabilities of the applicant.

Liability Although a physician may administer the physical abilities test, it is the employer who decides to hire or not, therefore the liability for violations of Title VII or ADA will rest with the employer.

Work Sample

Types of Work Sample Tests

Work-Sample Tests of Trainability These are tests through a period of instruction when the applicant is expected to learn tasks involved in a work sample. The work-sample tests of trainability are suitable for untrained applicants with no previous job experience. The predictive validity of this technique is low relative to other techniques and there is evidence the validity of the instrument may attenuate over time.

Simulation of an Event These tests present the candidate with a picture of an incident along with quotations from those involved. The candidates then respond to a series of questions in which they write down the decisions they would make. The test is scored by subject matter experts.

Low Fidelity Simulations These tests present applicants with descriptions of work situations and five alternative responses for each situation. Applicants choose the responses they would most likely and least likely make in each situation.

Work-samples Applicants perform observable, job-related behaviors as predictors of criterion performance. It is not feasible to adapt certain work behaviors for testing. Work samples often are not conducive to group administration and, therefore, were dropped from consideration because of concerns regarding test security.

Validating Work Sample Tests

Content Validity The most direct relationship between the test and job would be shown through content validation. The tasks and duties performed on the test would be compared to the tasks and duties performed on the job. The test should encompass significant (in quantity or in importance) tasks/duties of the job.

Criterion Validity To measure this validity, you must first determine what criteria will be used. Two common forms of criteria are:

* Supervisory ratings of the incumbent's job performance. The disadvantage of using supervisory ratings as criteria is that they typically lack sufficient reliability to be used for statistical analysis. The reliability of these measures is attenuated by rater errors such as 'halo' or 'leniency'. These ratings alto tend to lack the variability necessary to show a correlation between predictor and criterion

* Production measures such as quantity or quality of work. Production measures are not available for some jobs.

Cognitive Ability Tests

Verbal Comprehension :Each item consists of one word in capital letters followed by four words in small letters. The respondent is to choose the word in small letters that means about the same as the word in capital letters. Scoring is the number right minus 1/3 the number wrong.

Numerical Ability :A battery of three tests: integers, decimal fractions and common fractions, each is timed separately. Designed to measure skill in the four basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division

Visual Pursuit :Designed to measure the ability to make rapid scanning movements of the eyes without being distracted by other irrelevant visual stimulation. Involves the visual tracing of lines through an entangled network.

Visual Speed and Accuracy :The test consists of two columns of numbers; the respondent decides whether the number in the first column in exactly the same as the number in the second.

Numerical Reasoning : Designed to measure the ability to analyze logical relationships and to see the underlying principles of such relationships. This is also known as the process of inductive reasoning--making generalizations from specific instances. The test taker is given a series of numbers and determines what the next number will be. Scoring is the number right minus 1/4 the number wrong.

Verbal Reasoning Revised :Designed to measure the ability to analyze verbally stated facts and to make valid judgments on the basis of the logical implications of such facts; and thus, the ability to analyze available information in order to make practical decisions. Scoring is the number of right answers minus 1/2 the wrong answers.

Short-term Memory Tests: A form of cognitive ability test that are exemplified by short-term memory tasks such as forward digit span and serial rote learning, which do not require mental manipulation of inputs in order to provide an output. Short-term memory tests lack face validity in predicting job performance.

Information Processing Tests: Selection tests that have the same information processing requirements that occur on the job. In other words, the tests are tailored for each particular job. There is some evidence that adverse impact is reduced.

Biographical Data Selection Procedures

Biographical Data Selection Procedures

Types of Biographical Data Selection Procedures

Background Information/Application Blanks Paper-and-pencil questionnaires, interviews, and communications with past employers in order to assess an individual's behavioral reliability, integrity, and personal adjustment. In order to implement this technique a validation study would have to be conducted.

Empirically-keyed Biodata Applicants are presented with a list of questions pertaining to such things as one's economic stability, work ethic orientation, and educational achievement. Applicants' scores are determined by weighting each item according to the item's empirically derived relationship to the criterion of interest. This technique requires a validation study to be carried out in order to obtain the empirically derived weights for the biodata.

Rationally-keyed Biodata Applicants are presented with a list of questions pertaining to such things as one's economic stability, work ethic orientation and educational achievement. Applicants' scores are determined by weighting each item according to the item's rationally derived relationship to the criterion of interest. Research indicates the predictive validity of this technique may be lower than other available techniques with no evidence for reduced adverse impact against minorities.

Personality Tests

Personality Tests:


Select traits carefully An employer that selects applicants with high degree of 'assertiveness', 'independence', and 'self-confidence' may end up excluding females significantly more than males which would result in adverse impact

Select tests carefully Any tests should have been analyzed for (high) reliability and (low) adverse impact.

Not used exclusively Personality tests should not be the sole instrument used for selecting applicants. Rather, they should be used in conjunction with other procedures as one element of the selection process. Applicants should not be selected on the basis of personality tests alone.

Summary of Personality Tests

1 Since there is not a correct answer to personality tests, the scoring of the procedure could be questioned. .

2. Recent litigation has suggested that some items for these types of tests may be too intrusive (Soroka v. Dayton Hudson, 1991).

3.This technique lacks face validity. In other words, it would be difficult to show how individual questions on certain personality measures are job related even if the overall personality scale is a valid predictor of job performance.

4.Hooke and Krauss (1971) administered three (3) tests to sergeant candidates; the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Allport-Vemon-Lindzey Study of Values, and the Gough Adjective Check List. These tests did not differentiate candidates rated as good sergeant material from those rates as poorer candidates. The researchers concluded that the groups may have been so similar that these tests were not sensitive enough to differentiate them.
Types of Personality Tests

Types of Personality Tests

Personal Attribute Inventory:An interpersonal assessment instrument which consists of 50 positive and 50 negative adjectives from Gough's Adjective Check List. The subject is to select 30 which are most descriptive of the taregt group or person in question. This instrument was specifically designed to tap affective reactions and may be used in either assessing attitudes toward others or as a self-concept scale.

Personality Ajjective Checklist : A comprehensive, objective measure of eight personality styles (which are closely aligned with DSM-III-R Axis II constructs). These eight personality styles are: introversive, inhibited, cooperative, sociable, confident, forceful, respectful, and sensitive. This instrument is designed for use with nonpsychiatric patients and normal adults who read minimally at the eighth grade level. Test reports are computer-generated and are intended for use by qualified professionals only. Interpretive statements are based on empirical data and theoretical inference. They are considered probabilistic in nature and cannot be considered definitive. (2K )

Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory :Self-scoring six-point rating scale is a training instrument designed to provide feedback to individuals about their potential for cross-cultural effectiveness. It is most effective when used as part of a training program. It can also be used as a team-building tool for culturally diverse work groups and as a counseling tool for people in the process of cross-cultural adjustment. The inventory contains 50 items, distributed among 4 subscales: emotional resilience, flexibility/openness, perceptual acuity, personal autonomy. Materials:

Psychological Inventory :Multipurpose questionnaire designed to assess normal personality characteristics important in everyday life that individuals make use of to understand, classify, and predict their own behaviors and that of others. In this revision, two new scales, empathy and independence, have been added; semantic changes were made in 29 items; and 18 items were eliminated. The inventory is applicable for use in a variety of settings, including business and industry, schools and colleges, clinics and counseling agencies, and for cross cultural and other research. May be used to advise employees/applicants about their vocational plans.

Types of Interviews

Types of Interviews

Unstructured Interview Involves a procedure where different questions may be asked of different applicants.

Situational Interview Candidates are interviewed about what actions they would take in various job-related situations. The job-related situations are usually identified using the Critical incidents job analysis Technique . The interviews are then scored using a scoring guide constructed by job experts.

Behavior Description Interviews Candidates are asked what actions they have taken in prior job situations that are similar to situations they may encounter on the job. The interviews are then scored using a scoring guide constructed by job experts.

Comprehensive Structured Interviews Candidates are asked questions pertaining to how they would handle job-related situations, job knowledge, worker requirements, and how the candidate would perform various job simulations. Interviews tapping job knowledge offer a way to assess a candidate's current level of knowledge related to relevant implicit dimensions of job performance (i.e., "tacit knowledge" or "practical intelligence" related to a specific job position)

Structured Behavioral Interview This technique involves asking all interviewees standardized questions about how they handled past situations that were similar to situations they may encounter on the job. The interviewer may also ask discretionary probing questions for details of the situations, the interviewee's behavior in the situation and the outcome. The interviewee's responses are then scored with behaviorally anchored rating scales.

Oral Interview Boards This technique entails the job candidate giving oral responses tojob-related questions asked by a panel of interviewers. Each member of the panel then rates each interviewee on such dimensions as work history, motivation, creative thinking, and presentation. The scoring procedure for oral interview boards has typically been subjective; thus, it would be subject to personal biases of

Summary of Interview

Summary of Interviews

In general, interviews have the following weaknesses:
validity of the interview is relatively low

reliability of the interview is also low

stereotyping by interviewers, in general, may lead to adverse impact against minorities

the subjective nature of this procedure may allow bias such as favoritism and politics to enter
into the selection process

this procedure is not standardized.

not useful when large numbers of applicants must be evaluated and/or selected

Oral Responses and Oral Inquiries

Interviews: A selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants' oral responses to oral inquiries.


*useful for determining if the applicant has requisite communicative or social skills which may be necessary for the job

*interviewer can obtain supplementary information

*used to appraise candidates' verbal fluency
*can assess the applicant's job knowledge
*can be used for selection among equally qualified applicants
*enables the supervisor and/or co-workers to determine if there is compatability between the applicant and the employees
*allows the applicant to ask questions that may reveal additional information useful for making a selection decision
*the interview may be modified as needed to gather important information


*subjective evaluations are made
*decisions tend to be made within the first few minutes of the interview with the remainder of the interview used to validate or justify the original decision
*interviewers form stereotypes concerning the characteristics required for success on the job
*research has shown disproportionate rates of selection between minority and non-minority members using interviews
*negative information seems to be given more weight
*not much evidence of validity of the selection procedure
*not as reliable as tests

Selection Steps

Selection Procedures

DefinitionPersonnel Selection is the methodical placement of individuals into jobs. Its impact on the organization is realized when employees achieve years or decades of service to the employer. The process of selection follows a methodology to collect information about an individual in order to determine if that individual should be employed. The methodology used should not violate any laws regarding personnel selection.

Job AnalysisA selection procedure has "validity" if a clear relationship can be shown between the selection procedure itself and the job for which the individuals are being selected. Thus, an important part of selection is Job Analysis. A job analysis is usually conducted prior to, and is often used in, the development of the selection procedures. However, a selection procedure may be "validated" after it has been implemented by conducting a job analysis and showing the relationship between the selection procedure and the job.

The process of personnel selection involves collecting information about individuals for the purpose of determining suitability for employment in a particular job. This information is collected using one or more selection devices or methods which are categorized below:

* Interview
* Personality Tests
* Biographical Data
*Cognitive Ability Test
* Physical Ability Tests
* Work Samples
* Self Assessments
* Assessment Centers

Workers' Compensation

Workers' compensation is a "no-fault" system that protects employees injured on the job by guaranteeing medical treatment and payment for lost wages while they are out of work because of a work-related injury or illness. The employee does not have to prove that the injury was the employer's fault to receive benefits. At the same time, employers are protected from legal fees and large jury awards that could result if employees could sue for work-related injuries and illnesses.

For most employees, state workers' compensation statutes define the injuries covered, benefits levels, and how claims are filed, contested, and settled. Even though workers' compensation laws provide the exclusive remedy for job-related injury and illnesses, employees might still be covered by the Family & Medical Leave Act (FMLA) or the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

Premiums for workers' compensation insurance have risen at an alarming rate over the last decade, making cost-control measures a priority for employers.

What is HRM

Human Resource Management
Discuss Human Resource Management Have A Question? Post Query Here

What does a Human Resources professional do?

A complete job description for Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists is available on this site from the Occupational Outlook Handbook. This resource describes the nature of the work, working conditions, employment, training, qualifications, advancement, job outlook, and earnings. It also provides information about related occupations and sources of additional information.

Nature of the Work*
DEOMIGRAD says, “If you have management telling you, as HR, to go out there and create some dedication and commitment, then you are going to also be considered as the scapegoat if it doesn't happen as they expect. You become an easy 'fall guy' for management to go to their boards and blame for the high turnover or poor morale.”

Employee Commitment

Attracting the most qualified employees and matching them to the jobs for which they are best suited is important for the success of any organization. However, many enterprises are too large to permit close contact between top management and employees. Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists provide this link. In the past, these workers have been associated with performing the administrative function of an organization, such as handling employee benefits questions or recruiting, interviewing, and hiring new personnel in accordance with policies and requirements that have been established in conjunction with top management.
Today's human resources workers juggle these tasks and, increasingly, consult top executives regarding strategic planning. They have moved from behind-the-scenes staff work to leading the company in suggesting and changing policies. Senior management is recognizing the importance of the human resources department to their bottom line.

n an effort to improve morale and productivity and limit job turnover, they also help their firms effectively use employee skills, provide training opportunities to enhance those skills, and boost employee satisfaction with their jobs and working conditions. Although some jobs in the human resources field require only limited contact with people outside the office, dealing with people is an essential part of the job.

In a small organization, a human resources generalist may handle all aspects of human resources work, requiring a broad range of knowledge. The responsibilities of human resources generalists can vary widely, depending on their employer's needs. In a large corporation, the top human resources executive usually develops and coordinates personnel programs and policies. (Executives are included in the Handbook statement on top executives.) These policies are usually implemented by a director or manager of human resources and, in some cases, a director of industrial relations.

he director of human resources may oversee several departments, each headed by an experienced manager, who most likely specializes in one personnel activity such as employment, compensation, benefits, training and development, or employee relations.
Employment and placement managers oversee the hiring and separation of employees and supervise various workers, including equal employment opportunity specialists and recruitment specialists. Employment, recruitment, and placement specialists recruit and place workers.
ecruiters maintain contacts within the community and may travel extensively, often to college campuses, to search for promising job applicants. Recruiters screen, interview, and sometimes test applicants. They also may check references and extend job offers. These workers must be thoroughly familiar with the organization and its personnel policies to discuss wages, working conditions, and promotional opportunities with prospective employees. They also must keep informed about equal employment opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action guidelines and laws, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act.

EO officers, representatives, or affirmative action coordinators handle this area in large organizations. They investigate and resolve EEO grievances, examine corporate practices for possible violations, and compile and submit EEO statistical reports.

Employer relations representatives, who usually work in government agencies, maintain working relationships with local employers and promote the use of public employment programs and services. Similarly, employment interviewers-whose many job titles include personnel consultants, personnel development specialists, and human resources coordinators-help match employers with qualified job seekers.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists conduct programs for employers and may specialize in specific areas such as position classifications or pensions. Job analysts, sometimes called position classifiers, collect and examine detailed information about job duties to prepare job descriptions. These descriptions explain the duties, training, and skills each job requires. Whenever a large organization introduces a new job or reviews existing jobs, it calls upon the expert knowledge of the job analyst.

Occupational analysts conduct research, usually in large firms. They are concerned with occupational classification systems and study the effects of industry and occupational trends upon worker relationships. They may serve as technical liaison between the firm and industry, government, and labor unions.

Establishing and maintaining a firm's pay system is the principal job of the compensation manager. Assisted by staff specialists, compensation managers devise ways to ensure fair and equitable pay rates. They may conduct surveys to see how their rates compare with others and to see that the firm's pay scale complies with changing laws and regulations. In addition, compensation managers often oversee their firm's performance evaluation system, and they may design reward systems such as pay-for-performance plans.

Employee benefits managers and specialists handle the company's employee benefits program, notably its health insurance and pension plans. Expertise in designing and administering benefits programs continues to gain importance as employer-provided benefits account for a growing proportion of overall compensation costs, and as benefit plans increase in number and complexity. For example, pension benefits might include savings and thrift, profit sharing, and stock ownership plans; health benefits may include long-term catastrophic illness insurance and dental insurance. Familiarity with health benefits is a top priority, as more firms struggle to cope with the rising cost of health care for employees and retirees. In addition to health insurance and pension coverage, some firms offer employees life and accidental death and dismemberment insurance, disability insurance, and relatively new benefits designed to meet the needs of a changing work force, such as parental leave, child and elder care, long-term nursing home care insurance, employee assistance and wellness programs, and flexible benefits plans. Benefits managers must keep abreast of changing Federal and State regulations and legislation that may affect employee benefits.

Employee assistance plan managers, also called employee welfare managers, are responsible for a wide array of programs covering occupational safety and health standards and practices; health promotion and physical fitness, medical examinations, and minor health treatment, such as first aid; plant security; publications; food service and recreation activities; car pooling and transportation programs, such as transit subsidies; employee suggestion systems; childcare and elder care; and counseling services. Child care and elder care are increasingly important due to growth in the number of dual-income households and the elderly population. Counseling may help employees deal with emotional disorders, alcoholism, or marital, family, consumer, legal, and financial problems. Some employers offer career counseling as well. In large firms, certain programs, such as security and safety, may be in separate departments headed by other managers.

Training and development managers and specialists conduct and supervise training and development programs for employees. Increasingly, management recognizes that training offers a way of developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work, and building loyalty to the firm. Training is widely accepted as a method of improving employee morale, but this is only one of the reasons for its growing importance. Other factors include the complexity of the work environment, the rapid pace of organizational and technological change, and the growing number of jobs in fields that constantly generate new knowledge. In addition, advances in learning theory have provided insights into how adults learn, and how training can be organized most effectively for them.

Training specialists plan, organize, and direct a wide range of training activities. Trainers conduct orientation sessions and arrange on-the-job training for new employees. They help rank-and-file workers maintain and improve their job skills, and possibly prepare for jobs requiring greater skill. They help supervisors improve their interpersonal skills in order to deal effectively with employees. They may set up individualized training plans to strengthen an employee's existing skills or teach new ones. Training specialists in some companies set up leadership or executive development programs among employees in lower level positions. These programs are designed to develop potential and current executives to replace those retiring. Trainers also lead programs to assist employees with transitions due to mergers and acquisitions, as well as technological changes. In government-supported training programs, training specialists function as case managers. They first assess the training needs of clients, then guide them through the most appropriate training method. After training, clients either may be referred to employer relations representatives or receive job placement assistance.
Planning and program development is an important part of the training specialist's job. In order to identify and assess training needs within the firm, trainers may confer with managers and supervisors or conduct surveys. They also periodically evaluate training effectiveness.
Depending on the size, goals, and nature of the organization, trainers may differ considerably in their responsibilities and in the methods they use. Training methods include on-the-job training; schools in which shop conditions are duplicated for trainees prior to putting them on the shop floor; apprenticeship training; classroom training; and electronic learning, which may involve interactive Internet-based training, multimedia programs, distance learning, satellite training, videos and other computer-aided instructional technologies, simulators, conferences, and workshops.

The director of industrial relations forms labor policy, oversees industrial labor relations, negotiates collective bargaining agreements, and coordinates grievance procedures to handle complaints resulting from disputes with unionized employees. The director of industrial relations also advises and collaborates with the director of human resources, other managers, and members of their staff, because all aspects of personnel policy-such as wages, benefits, pensions, and work practices-may be involved in drawing up a new or revised contract.
Labor relations managers and their staffs implement industrial labor relations programs. When a collective bargaining agreement is up for negotiation, labor relations specialists prepare information for management to use during negotiation, which requires familiarity with economic and wage data as well as extensive knowledge of labor law and collective bargaining trends. The labor relations staff interprets and administers the contract with respect to grievances, wages and salaries, employee welfare, health care, pensions, union and management practices, and other contractual stipulations. As union membership is continuing to decline in most industries, industrial relations personnel are working more with employees who are not members of a labor union.

Dispute resolution-attaining tacit or contractual agreements-has become increasingly important as parties to a dispute attempt to avoid costly litigation, strikes, or other disruptions. Dispute resolution also has become more complex, involving employees, management, unions, other firms, and government agencies. Specialists involved in dispute resolution must be highly knowledgeable and experienced, and often report to the director of industrial relations.

Conciliators, or mediators, advise and counsel labor and management to prevent and, when necessary, resolve disputes over labor agreements or other labor relation's issues. Arbitrators, sometimes called umpires or referees, decide disputes that bind both labor and management to specific terms and conditions of labor contracts. Labor relations specialists who work for unions perform many of the same functions on behalf of the union and its members.

Other emerging specialists include international human resources managers, who handle human resources issues related to a company's foreign operations, and human resources information system specialists, who develop and apply computer programs to process personnel information, match job seekers with job openings, and handle other personnel matters.

Working conditions*Personnel work usually takes place in clean, pleasant, and comfortable office settings. Arbitrators and mediators may work out of their homes. Many human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists work a standard 35- to 40-hour week. However, longer hours might be necessary for some workers-for example, labor relations managers and specialists, arbitrators, and mediators-when contract agreements are being prepared and negotiated. Although most human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists work in the office, some travel extensively. For example, recruiters regularly attend professional meetings and visit college campuses to interview prospective employees; arbitrators and mediators often must travel to the site chosen for negotiations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement*

Because of the diversity of duties and level of responsibility, the educational backgrounds of human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists vary considerably. In filling entry-level jobs, employers usually seek college graduates. Many prefer applicants who have majored in human resources, personnel administration, or industrial and labor relations. Others look for college graduates with a technical or business background or a well-rounded liberal arts education.

Many colleges and universities have programs leading to a degree in personnel, human resources, or labor relations. Some offer degree programs in personnel administration or human resources management, training and development, or compensation and benefits. Depending on the school, courses leading to a career in human resources management may be found in departments of business administration, education, instructional technology, organizational development, human services, communication, or public administration, or within a separate human resources institution or department.

Because an interdisciplinary background is appropriate in this field, a combination of courses in the social sciences, business, and behavioral sciences is useful. Some jobs may require a more technical or specialized background in engineering, science, finance, or law, for example. Most prospective human resources specialists should take courses in compensation, recruitment, training and development, and performance appraisal, as well as courses in principles of management, organizational structure, and industrial psychology. Other relevant courses include business administration, public administration, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and statistics. Courses in labor law, collective bargaining, labor economics, labor history, and industrial psychology also provide a valuable background for the prospective labor relations specialist. As in many other fields, knowledge of computers and information systems also is useful.

An advanced degree is increasingly important for some jobs. Many labor relations jobs require graduate study in industrial or labor relations. A strong background in industrial relations and law is highly desirable for contract negotiators, mediators, and arbitrators; in fact, many people in these specialties are lawyers. A background in law also is desirable for employee benefits managers and others who must interpret the growing number of laws and regulations. A master's degree in human resources, labor relations, or in business administration with a concentration in human resources management is highly recommended for those seeking general and top management positions.

For many specialized jobs in the human resources field, previous experience is an asset; for more advanced positions, including managers as well as arbitrators and mediators, it is essential. Many employers prefer entry-level workers who have gained some experience through an internship or work-study program while in school. Personnel administration and human resources development require the ability to work with individuals as well as a commitment to organizational goals. This field also demands other skills people may develop elsewhere-using computers, selling, teaching, supervising, and volunteering, among others. This field offers clerical workers opportunities for advancement to professional positions. Responsible positions sometimes are filled by experienced individuals from other fields, including business, government, education, social services administration, and the military.

The human resources field demands a range of personal qualities and skills. Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists must speak and write effectively. The growing diversity of the workforce requires that they work with or supervise people with various cultural backgrounds, levels of education, and experience. They must be able to cope with conflicting points of view, function under pressure, and demonstrate discretion, integrity, fair-mindedness, and a persuasive, congenial personality.

The duties given to entry-level workers will vary depending on whether they have a degree in human resource management, have completed an internship, or have some other type of human resources-related experience. Entry-level employees commonly learn the profession by performing administrative duties-helping to enter data into computer systems, compiling employee handbooks, researching information for a supervisor, or answering the phone and handling routine questions. Entry-level workers often enter formal or on-the-job training programs in which they learn how to classify jobs, interview applicants, or administer employee benefits. They then are assigned to specific areas in the personnel department to gain experience. Later, they may advance to a managerial position, overseeing a major element of the personnel program-compensation or training, for example.

Exceptional human resources workers may be promoted to director of personnel or industrial relations, which can eventually lead to a top managerial or executive position. Others may join a consulting firm or open their own business. A Ph.D. is an asset for teaching, writing, or consulting work.

Most organizations specializing in human resources offer classes intended to enhance the marketable skills of their members. Some organizations offer certification programs, which are signs of competence and can enhance one's advancement opportunities. For example, the International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans confers the Certified Employee Benefit Specialist designation to persons who complete a series of college-level courses and pass exams covering employee benefit plans. The Society for Human Resources Management has two levels of certification-Professional in Human Resources, and Senior Professional in Human Resources; both require experience and a comprehensive exam.

Job outlook*

The abundant supply of qualified college graduates and experienced workers should create keen competition for jobs. Overall employment of human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2010. In addition to openings due to growth, many job openings will arise from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.
Legislation and court rulings setting standards in various areas-occupational safety and health, equal employment opportunity, wages, health, pension, and family leave, among others-will increase demand for human resources, training, and labor relations experts. Rising health care costs should continue to spur demand for specialists to develop creative compensation and benefits packages that firms can offer prospective employees. Employment of labor relations staff, including arbitrators and mediators, should grow as firms become more involved in labor relations, and attempt to resolve potentially costly labor-management disputes out of court. Additional job growth may stem from increasing demand for specialists in international human resources management and human resources information systems.

Expected job growth varies by specialty. Many new jobs will stem from increasing efforts throughout industry to recruit and retain quality employees. As a result, employment, recruitment, and placement specialists are projected to grow as fast as average. Furthermore, employers are expected to devote greater resources to job-specific training programs in response to the increasing complexity of many jobs, the aging of the work force, and technological advances that can leave employees with obsolete skills. This should result in particularly strong demand for training and development specialists across all industries. Demand should continue to be strong among firms involved in management, consulting, and personnel supply, as businesses increasingly contract out personnel functions or hire personnel specialists on a temporary basis to meet the increasing cost and complexity of training and development programs. Demand also should increase in firms that develop and administer complex employee benefits and compensation packages for other organizations.

Demand for human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists also is governed by the staffing needs of the firms for which they work. A rapidly expanding business is likely to hire additional human resources workers-either as permanent employees or consultants-while a business that has experienced a merger or a reduction in its work force will require fewer human resources workers. Also, as human resources management becomes increasingly important to the success of an organization, some small and medium-size businesses that do not have a human resources department may assign employees various human resources duties together with other unrelated responsibilities. In any particular firm, the size and the job duties of the human resources staff are determined by the firm's organizational philosophy and goals, skills of its work force, pace of technological change, government regulations, collective bargaining agreements, standards of professional practice, and labor market conditions. Job growth could be limited by the widespread use of computerized human resources information systems that make workers more productive. Similar to other workers, employment of human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists, particularly in larger firms, may be adversely affected by corporate downsizing, restructuring, and mergers.

Sunday, June 17, 2007

Importance of cover letter

There are rules regarding style, arrangement, formatting, punctuation, etc., that distinguish a bad-written letter from the perfect one. Many word processors offer help in formatting and arranging the letter, but it does not hurt if you know how to do it because if you don’t, you will not choose wisely when the word processor suggest you options.
There is a relatively strict format for cover letters that should always remain the same. This format is boring and standard, but important. Here are some quick formatting pointers:
Basic format
To be effective, your cover letter should follow the basic format of a typical business letter and should address three general issues:
1. First paragraph: Why you are writing. 2. Middle paragraphs: What you have to offer. 3. Concluding paragraph: How you will follow-up.
Email cover letters
If the job posting asks you to send an attachment, send your resume as an MS Word document. However, many employers do not accept attachments. In these cases, paste your resume into your email message. Use a simple font and remove the fancy formatting. Don’t use HTML because the employer may not see a formatted message the same way you do.
After formatting email cover letter, send it to yourself first to test that the formatting works. If everything looks good, send it to the employer.
Make sure you spell check and check your grammar and upper and lower cases. They are just as important in an email cover letter as in paper cover letters.
Fonts, etc
These rules apply for all kinds of cover letters
· Always use a word processor to type out a cover letter.
· Do not use bright, shiny colors and fancy fonts that are difficult to read. Keep your colorful side for family and friends.
· Do not use many different font types and font sizes in your letters.
· Bold and italic make a piece of text stand out from the rest. This is true when you have in bold or italic a couple of words, which you want to emphasize, not when half of your letter is bold and/or italic. Such a heavy overuse of bold and/or italic is unacceptable in formal letters.
· Do not allow your format to distract attention from the good things you say about yourself in your cover letter.

Relieving Letter Format


Relieving Letter


This is Certify that Ms. XYZ has worked with us as “Executive-Recruitment” From May 10th ,2006 to June 9th ,2007 Subsequent to her Resignation DT June 06,2007, She has been relieved from her duties W.e.f Jun 09,2007.

With Best Wishes,

Yours Sincerely,

For XYZ Pvt. Ltd.

Director - Operations