Tuesday, December 18, 2007

Training Calendar

Training Calendar

Training calendar shall be submitted to Partner and upon approval shall be circulated to all HODs and concerned. The Training Calendar must be prepared in close consultation with all HODs so as to ensure no overlapping dates appear in the training calendar vis-à-vis normal functioning of the organization.

Training Calendar shall consist of following information:

· Program details
· Dates
· Duration & Timings
· Type of Program -External/Internal
· Faculty
· Participants Profile
· Follow up sessions

Training Budget

Training Budget

HR Department will submit at the beginning of each financial year the budget for Training & Development activities to Board of Partners. The budget will include:

· Report on last years training activities including efficacy.

· Training Man days achieved and budget for current year.

· Training costs budgeted for external programs.

· Internal training programs and costs.

· Capital investments including training equipment planned.

· Segment & skill wise training calendar for the year.

· Trainers developed during last year and planned for current year.

Monday, December 17, 2007

Trendy Training Techniques

Success in any field doesn’t just happen. It requires careful and detailed planning. The businessman doesn’t make hazardous or off-the-wall investments. A lawyer spends days getting ready to present a case to a jury.

Training is no different. However, before you begin planning your session, let’s take a look at the learning process. This will help you in your auxiliary job as trainer. This background information will aid you in developing a session plan, because it will discuss how adults learn. Causing student learning is what being an instructor is all about. Let’s take a look at a simplified version of the Psychology of Learning.
Psychology of Learning

Psychologists say that certain things must exist within the individual for learning to take place. He/ She must go through certain logical steps to learn. The characteristics of learning, laws of learning and psychology’s rules of learning will be discussed in this context.
Characteristics of Learning

Learning has a purpose. Most people have a pretty definite idea of what they want to do and achieve

Learning comes through experience. Learning is a very individual process and must be done by the participant himself - the instructor cannot do this for him

Learning is multifaceted. A trainer who thinks his job is only to train a participant’s muscle or memory is wasting his own and his student’s time

Learning is an active process. The more actively a participant is involved in the class, the greater his chances are for both learning and remembering
Laws of Learning

The five laws of learning are suitable for most learning situations. Keeping these laws in mind when planning a session lets the trainer creates a better learning atmosphere for the participants.

Law of readiness - A person learns best when he has the necessary background, a good attitude, and is ready to learn. He does not learn much if he sees no reason for learning.

Law of Exercise - Those things most often repeated are the best learned. This is the basis for practice and drill.

Law of Primacy - Primacy is being first, which often creates a strong impression. This means that the instructor must be right the first time. . This helps to provide a stable foundation for all that follows

Laws of Intensity - A sharp, clear, or exciting learning experience teaches more than a routine or boring one. This law implies that a student will learn more from the real thing than a substitute. Mockups, videotapes, interactive courseware, slides, charts, and any number of other training aids add sharpness and action to classroom instruction. Demonstrations, skits, and role playing do much to increase the leaning experience of students

Law of Recency - Other things being equal, the things learned last will be best remembered. The trainer must recognize the law of recency when planning a good summary. He should repeat, restate, or reemphasize the training objectives. He also repeats important information the participants need to remember
Psychology’s rules of Learning

The objective of training is to have participants learn something, and remember what they have learned. Instructor’s constantly employ many different psychological principles of learning. This section presents principles of learning, established by psychologists, which are useful for training. Some of these principles have been followed by more experienced instructors for years. All should be useful to the instructor who wants to be effective and successful.

Stimulate Students - Unpleasant things may be learned as easily as pleasant things. The worst stimuli are those which cause little or no feelings. It is better to have rewarding conditions than unpleasant conditions, but either is better than neutral conditions

Recognize Individual Differences - What your students can do is important in determining what can be learned and how long it will take. The ability to learn changes with age. It reaches a peak around 16 years of age, then begins to decline steadily for most people. An instructor should be more patient if he is trying to teach older or slower students
Understanding and Repetition Aid Retention - People remember what they understand better than what they try to memorize. Practicing a task over and over won’t help unless the reason for learning is understood by the students. However, remember that a lot of drill is still very important in getting facts across, in reinforcing them, and in creating performance habits.

First and Last Impressions Are Retained - The order of presentation is very important. Points or objectives presented at the beginning and end of the class are remembered better than those given in the middle. So, if four objectives are given during an hour, the two most important points should be given first and last

Showing Errors Can Aid Learning - Showing how errors happen can lead to increases in learning. Showing not only “what to do” but “what not to do.” This can be critical in teaching safety points. This doesn’t mean teach “the wrong way” to do something, just show what could go wrong

Rewards Aid Learning - Irregular or unexpected rewards are better then expected or constant rewards. Rewards that are always given at the same time (answering a question, when finishing a project, grading an exam, etc.) sometimes seems phony. Unexpected rewards provide tremendous encouragement and motivation and keep students “on their toes”

Exact Repetition Effective - Repeating the facts over and over helps memory just as much as using new examples each time.

Fear Is Effective In Small Doses - The use of a moderate fear appeal is better than a strong fear appeal. “No stress produces no learning.” However, too much stress is likely to turn off the students. A good instructor finds the right balance.

Success Begets Further Success - Knowledge of how well they are doing leads students to greater learning. So does telling them how the lesson will help them. Tell your participants when they are doing well

Belongingness” and “Satisfiers” Aid Learning -
Just repeating facts does not always lead to learning. Two things are necessary - “belongingness” and satisfiers.” Belongingness means that the things to be learned must belong together. They must show some connection or order. It has been shown that just saying the word “right” when the person is making the correct response is a satisfier. This helps speed up the learning process. The word “wrong” is an annoyer or “punishment” and is not as effective.

Why Evaluation of Training

Training cost can be significant in any business. Most organizations are prepared to incur these cost because they expect that their business to benefit from employees development and progress. Whether business has benefited can be assessed by evaluation training. There are basically four parties involved in evaluating the result of any training. Trainer, Trainee, Training and Development department and Line Manager.
*The Trainee wants to confirm that the course has met personal expectations and satisfied any learning objectives set by the T & D department at the beginning of the programme.
*The Trainer concern is to ensure that the training that has been provided is effective or not.
*Training and Development want to know whether the course has made the best use of the resources available.
*The Line manager will be seeking reassurance that the time hat trainee has spent in attending training results in to value and how deficiency in knowledge and skill redressed.
The problem for many organizations is not so much why training should be evaluated but how. Most of the organizations overlook evaluation because financial benefits are difficult to describe in concrete terms.

Principles of Training Evaluation

Principles of Training Evaluation:
*Training need should be identified and reviewed concurrently with the business and personal development plan process.
*There should be correlation to the needs of the business and the individual.
*Organisational, group and individual level training need should be identified and evaluated.
*Techniques of evaluation should be appropriate.
*The evaluation function should be in place before the training takes place.
*The outcome of evaluation should be used to inform the business and training process.

Training evaluation - science or art?

Training evaluation - science or art? Essentially, there are two schools of thought about training evaluation, those who believe in the importance of scientific, quantitative and conclusive analysis, and those who believe in the value of subjective, qualitative and action-oriented exploration. The former school support ROI analysis, use of experimental and control groups, and, above all, the elimination of extraneous or even contributing variables. This is mainly because they want proof of the value of training itself (and, possibly, to control or curtail its costs if they are high in comparison to other options). At this point we should ask ourselves is this what busy line managers want, is it really sensible to exclude variables that might contribute to increased training impact, and do we really only want a snapshot about training taken at some arbitrary point? Those who want to use evaluation to improve training and to reinforce its effect on participants' learning belong to the latter school of thought. They want to improve the transfer of training back to work (one of the biggest leakages in any training effort). They are ready to use interviews, small group surveys and feedback, and critical incident analysis deliberately to involve participants in renewed or new learning about the original training. Subjectivity and the inclusion of variables from activities related to the training (for example, promotion following management training, or changes in wider performance management practices introduced alongside appraisal training) are not a problem, because they assist in the interpretation of the rich data gathered. This school is interested in evidence of ongoing training impact, and what it may point to. It seems to me essential to recognise that the difficulties and costs of proving or quantifying the value of training increase over time, but the benefits of using evaluation to reinforce the original training remain high at all times.

Training Evaluation System

Why Training Evaluation

Training is always done with specific objectives. Hence, evaluation of training is very important. It is important because:
*It tells us about the quality of training and the effect it has created on the learners.
*Systematic evaluations also help us in pointing out the weaknesses of the training program so that in future such things can be taken care of.
*It also indicates the extent to which learners have learnt from the program and *The extent they have transferred their learning into their daily job.

For the evaluation to be effective, it is very important that training objectives are carefully thought and framed, the principal significant questions should be:

To what extent the identified training needs objectives achieved by the programme?
To what extent were the learner’s objective achieved
What did the learner’s learn?
What commitment have the learners made about the learning they are going to implement on their work?

This model is referred from Kirkpatrick’s model of training evaluation.

It indicates the feedback of the participants with regard to the coverage, deliverability, content, presentation and duration of the program. (annexure 1 attached)

*A feedback form will be circulated to the trainees at the end of the training program to gather their individual feedback / comments.
*The training feedback questionnaire will cover all the domains mentioned above.
*Trainees would rate each and every domain on ______ scale.

The purpose of this stage is to obtain information on the amount of learning by the trainees. Getting feedback in an organized manner helps in correct and valuable evaluation.

We can evaluate a trainee learning by the following ways:

1. Personal action plan
2. 180 degree feedback

All the trainees will be asked to answer the following the questions and would be asked to reply them while at work:

What was your learning out of the session: we would know the extent to which an employee has learned out of the training.

How will you implement the learning on actual work? – this is also an employees personal action plan.
support you require from your senior mangers for implementing the same.

180 degree feedback is done by giving a feedback form to the trainee juniors, trainee himself and his reporting senior. This feedback will be collected after receiving PAP from the trainees and therefore questionnaire will be based on the trainee PAP which he/she submits. The questionnaire will be prepared by Trainer or Assigned evaluator

It is very important to give time to learners to reflect their learning on their work place.

1. During this phase 3 months time will be usually given to trainees to actually reflect the same
at the work place.

2. Follow ups are regularly done by Trainer or Evaluator.

3. At the end of three months 180 degree feedback will be repeated and same questionnaire
which was filed earlier will be filled again by the same employees.

Evaluation at this level consists of an attempt to measure aspects of the effects of trainee’s job behavior –whether on productivity or efficiency of trainee’s department.
Scores of 180 degree which was taken in Phase2 and 3 will be at the final evaluation.

The deviations would reflect the success of the training imparted.

Positive deviation would reflect the improvement in an employee behavior or efficiency

Seven Question Before Training

Seven questions to ask before beginning a training program
Here are seven real-world questions to ask yourself while planning a training program. Scroll down for an example for each question.
1. Does anybody really need this training?
2. Does everybody really need this training?
3. How much will this cost per person, and what are the economies of scale?
4. How can I measure the success of this program quantitatively?
5. How can I measure the success of this program qualitatively?
6. How quickly will this training become outdated?
7. How will this training affect retention?
1. Does anybody really need this training?You've just installed the latest version of Microsoft Word for 10 employees. Do they need to be trained for it? Or can they figure it out on their own? Keep in mind, oftentimes employees may be confident they can manage without formal training, but there may be aspects they aren't considering (in this case, there could be word-processing or graphical functions they're not aware of).
2. Does everybody really need this training?You're about to open another unit of your up-market restaurant, and plan to send your waiters to an all-day workshop on customer service and interpersonal skills. Should your kitchen hands go? You may need to look at the overall goals of your business or organisation. If you own a restaurant and your selling point is going to be customer service, you may want to train the whole staff. If turnover among kitchen hands is sky high, and customer service isn't your first priority, you may be able to forgo the training for the kitchen hands (though keep in mind the commitment you show by providing training may reduce turnover in the first place).
3. How much will this cost per person, and what are the economies of scale?As a high school superintendent, you want to keep your staff up to date with the latest in teaching methods. There's a great conference that the 20 teachers in your high school are interested in attending, but it's 500 miles away. Will it pay to send them there? What kind of a discount can you get for 20 people? Sometimes, costs simply make a training program prohibitive for all parties; you may have to train 10 teachers now and 10 at the end of the semester.
4. How can I measure the success of this program quantitatively?As the HR director for a large corporation, you're concerned about the ability of several of your employees to interact with the media and with community groups. You're considering bringing in a media-training specialist to practice skills such as dealing with reporters' tough questions. You may want to think of creative ways to measure the outcome quantitatively. Can you measure the amount of media attention (i.e. in column-inches) your company was receiving before and after the training? Can you measure the ratio of interviews to stories written about your company before and after training? Are there other measures you can use?
5. How can I measure the success of this program qualitatively?Using the example from question four, think of ways to measure your outcome. Rate all newspaper clippings and broadcast reports (positive coverage, negative coverage, neutral coverage) before and after the training to measure the success. Have trainers or other employees evaluate the interviewing ability of your trainees before and after. Look for other measures.
6. How quickly will this training become outdated?The hospital in which you work bills itself as an advanced medical center on the cutting-edge of health technology. You learn of a new medical test that can save time and money for doctors and nurses. What can you do to find out if this is a passing fad or a method with staying power? Will it pay to train every nurse and every doctor in the new procedure if by the time you're done it is out of vogue?
7. How will this training affect retention?Your insurance company has hired lots of new employees straight out of college and has told them throughout the process that it likes to "promote from within." Are you providing managerial training to these employees? Do they know how to conduct interviews and how to draw up budgets? Make sure your company goals and your training mesh, or your employees will go somewhere where they really are being groomed for top spots.

On-the-Job Training

It is the responsibility of supervisors and managers to utilize available resources to train, qualify, and develop their employees.

On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employee's worksite. OJT will generally be the primary method used for broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It is particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee's job - especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally-owned equipment and facilities.

Morale, productivity, and professionalism will normally be high in those organizations that employ a sound OJT program.

An analysis of the major job requirements (identified in the position description and performance plan) and related knowledges, skills, and abilities form the basis for setting up an OJT plan. To be most effective, an OJT plan should include:

*The subject to be covered;
*Number of hours;
*Estimated completion date; and
*Method by which the training will be evaluated

Training an employee in their own working environment, with equipment they are familiar with and people they know can help they gain direct experience to a standard approved by the employer .

Employee may find that they have more confidence to use the equipment if they are supervised and guided as they feel they are doing the job right.

Employee may feel more at ease being taught or supervised by people they know rather than complete strangers .

Managers or supervisors can assess improvement and progress over a period of time and this makes it easier to identify a problem intervene and resolve problems quickly .

This type of training is also productive, as the employee is still working as they are learning .

As training progresses and the employee begins to feel more confident, this confidence would allow them to work at a higher standard and ultimately be more productive .

Training "on-the-job" would also prove an opportunity to get to know staff they might not normally talk to.

Mentoring or training on-the-job can work our very cost effective .

Teaching or mentoring is a specialisation in itself, unless the person mentoring or training has the skills and knowledge to train, this would mean that the training would not be done to a sufficient standard.

The person teaching or mentoring may not be given the time to spend with the employee to teach them properly, which would mean substandard training has been achieved and learning has only been half done.

The trainers may posses many bad habits and pass these on to the employee being trained.

If the trainer has been given limited time to train the employee, this would mean that the skill or knowledge has not been fully understood.

If a trainer has been brought into the company externally they might not be familiar with the equipment fully or layout and this would waste time.

Sunday, December 16, 2007

Remedial Training

Remedial training is arranged to overcome the shortcomings in the behaviour and performance of old employees.Some of the experience employees might have picked up appropriate methods and style of working.Such employees are identified and correct work methods and procedures are taught to them.Remedial Training should be conducted by Psychological Experts.

Refresher Training

When existing technique become obsolete due the development of the better technique,Employee have to be trained in the use of new method and technique.With the passage of the time employees may forget some of the method of doing work.Refresher Training is designed to revive and refresh the knowledge and to update the skills of the existing rapid changes in technology and work method.Refresher Training or Re-Training programmes are conducted to avoid obsolescence of knowledge and skills.

Promotional Training

Promotional Training
It involves training of existing employee to enable them to perform higher level job.Employees with potential are selected and they are given training before their promotion, So that they do not find it difficult to shoulder the higher responsibilities of the new positions to which they are promoted

Safety Training

Effective dissemination of safety information is essential for a successful Injury and Illness Prevention Plan. Indeed, experience has shown that training of employees is the single most effective means of reducing injuries and illnesses in the work place. This training should include general safe work practices as well as specific instruction on control of hazards unique to each employee's job assignment.
Types of Training Many types of training may be used to communicate safety-related information to employees. Training may vary widely with respect to instructional method, setting, subject matter, etc.
Classroom instruction, which involves the presentation of general or specialized safety information to a group of employees in a classroom or conference setting.

Job-site safety meetings, which are informal gatherings of small groups of employees, usually for the purpose of discussing safety matters related to the work being performed in the immediate area (e.g., "tailgate meetings" on job sites).

On-the-job training, in which a single or small number of employees receive personalized instruction from their supervisor.

Written instruction or training materials.
General Safety Training General safety training refers to instruction or guidance, which is of general applicability and not related to specialized trades or procedures. Examples include office safety, fire safety, and general hazard awareness. EH&S is responsible for conducting regularly scheduled sessions on general safety. Supervisors must ensure that employees are made aware of the requirement for and availability of general safety training.
Training by Supervisors Job-specific safety training sessions dealing with an employee's unique job assignment must be developed by each supervisor. It is the responsibility of each supervisor to understand his/her employees' job tasks and related hazards. Supervisors will be provided health and safety training, which should be used in conjunction with experience and education to thoroughly familiarize themselves with the nature of hazards to which employees under their immediate direction and control may be exposed. EH&S should be consulted to determine the appropriate level of training required for specific assignments.
Frequency of Training As a general guideline, employees should be provided with safety-related instruction:

Upon reporting to work;

Prior to assignment on a new job assignment for which training has not been previously provided;

Whenever new substances, processes, procedures or equipment which represent a new hazard are introduced into the workplace;

Whenever the supervisor receives notification or obtains knowledge of a new or previously unrecognized hazard.

In addition, the frequency requirements for specialized training, as described in the various Hazard Control Programs, must also be met.
Retention of Training Records Records shall be kept on file for at least three years within the department of the individual who provided or coordinated the training. Alternatively, if a training record is forwarded to Environmental Health and Safety, EH&S will assume responsibility for retaining that record.

Job Training

Job Training
It refers to the training provided with a view to increase and knowledge and skills of an employee for improving performance on the job.Employees may be taught the correct methods of handling of equipments and machines used in jobs.Such training helps to reduce accidents,Waste and inefficiency in the performance of the job.

Orientation/Induction Training

New employee orientation effectively integrates the new employee into your organization and assists with retention, motivation, job satisfaction, and quickly enabling each individual to become contributing members of the work team
Most employers provide orientation programs for new hires and training programs for both current and new employees. These programs have different purposes. Orientation programs typically deal with the assimilation of employees into new working environments while training programs generally concern “hands on” job or functional skills development.
Orienting employees to their workplaces and their jobs is one of the most neglected functions in many organizations. An employee handbook and piles of paperwork is not sufficient anymore when it comes to welcoming a new employee to your organization. The most frequent complaints about new employee orientation are that it is overwhelming, boring, or that the new employee is left to sink or swim. The result is often a confused new employee who is not productive and is more likely to leave the organization within a year.

With an ongoing labor crunch, developing an effective employee orientation experience continues to be crucial. It is critical that new hire programs are carefully planned to educate the employee to the values, history and who is who in the organization. A well thought out orientation program, whether it lasts one day or six months, will help not only in retention of employees, but also in productivity. Organizations that have good orientation programs get their people up to speed faster, have better alignment between what the employees do and what the organization needs them to do, and have lower turnover rates.
Purposes of Orientation Employers have to realize that orientation isn't just a nice gesture put on by the organization. It serves as an important element of the recruitment and retention process. Some key purposes are:
1.To Reduce Startup Costs
Proper orientation can help the employee get "up to speed" much more quickly, thereby reducing the costs associated with learning the job.

2.To Reduce Anxiety
Any employee, when put into a new, strange situation, will experience anxiety that can impede his or her ability to learn to do the job. Proper orientation helps to reduce anxiety that results from entering into an unknown situation, and helps provide guidelines for behavior and conduct, so the employee doesn't have to experience the stress of guessing.

3.To Reduce Employee Turnover
Employee turnover increases as employees feel they are not valued, or are put in positions where they can't possibly do their jobs. Orientation shows that the organization values the employee, and helps provide the tools necessary for succeeding in the job.

4.To Save Time For Supervisor & Coworkers
Simply put, the better the initial orientation, the less likely supervisors and co‑workers will have to spend time teaching the employee.
5. To Develop Realistic Job Expectations, Positive Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
It is important that employees learn as soon as possible what is expected of them, and what to expect from others, in addition to learning about the values and attitudes of the organization. While people can learn from experience, they will make many mistakes that are unnecessary and potentially damaging.
The main reasons orientation programs fail:
The program was not planned.
The employee was unaware of the job requirements.
The employee does not feel welcome.
All new employees should complete a new employment orientation program that is designed to assist them in adjusting to their jobs and work environment and to instill a positive work attitude and motivation at the onset.

A thoughtful new employee orientation program can reduce turnover and save an organization thousands of dollars. One reason people change jobs is because they never feel welcome or part of the organization they join. The most important principle to convey during an orientation is commitment to continuous improvement and continual learning. That way, new employees become comfortable with asking questions to obtain the information they need to learn, problem solve and make decisions.

A well thought out orientation process takes energy, time and commitment, however it usually pays off for the individual employee, the department, and the organization. One such example is Mecklenburg County's (North Carolina) success in revamping its employee orientation program, to live up to its credo of employees being the organization's greatest resource. In 1996, as part of a larger initiative to redesign services to meet customer needs, the Mecklenburg County Human Resources Department staff made a smart decision- they viewed new employees as part of their customer base and asked their customers what they wanted.
Employees were asked what they wanted and needed from orientation. They were also asked what they liked and didn't like about orientation. New employees were asked what they wanted to know about the organization. Additionally, the organization's senior management were asked what they believed was important for employees to learn when joining the county payroll.

Using feedback collected from employees, Mecklenburg's HR training staff first realized that meeting employees' needs required more than a half day session. Trusting employee feedback, the trainers crafted a one-day orientation that gave employees what they said they wanted and what senior management believed employees needed to know. Essentially, the mix includes the topics that lack excitement-W-2s and various policies and procedures-but it also includes details that let the employee know something about the organization.
Implementation Tips
Human Resource professionals and line managers first need to consider key orientation planning questions before implementing or revamping a current program:
What things would new employees need to know about this work environment that would make them more comfortable?

What impression and impact would I want to make on new employees’ first day?
What key policies and procedures must employees be aware of the first day to avoid mistakes on the second day? Concentrate on vital issues.

What specific things can I do to ensure that new employees will begin to know their co-workers without feeling overwhelmed?

What special things (desk, work area, equipment, special instructions) can I provide to make new employees feel comfortable, welcome and secure?

What positive experience can I provide for new employees that they could discuss with their families? The experience should be something to make the new employee feel valued by the organization.

How can I, as the supervisor, ensure that I will be available to new employees on the first day to provide personal attention and to convey a clear message that they are important additions to the work team?
Remember, first impressions are crucial. Here are some tips for putting your best foot forward.
Begin before the new person does. Send an agenda to the new associate with the offer letter so the employee knows what to expect. Stay in touch after he or she has accepted the position to answer questions or help in other ways. Also, make sure the new person's work area is ready for the first day of work.

Make sure everyone knows the employee is starting and encourage them to come to say hello before orientation begins.

Assign a mentor or partner to show the new person around, make introductions, and start training. Let the mentor have sufficient notice so he or she can make preparations.

Start with the basics. People become productive sooner if they are firmly grounded in the basic knowledge they need to understand their job. Focus on the why, when, where, and how of the position before expecting them to handle assignments or big projects. Don't overwhelm them with too much information.
Provide a list of frequently asked questions with a contact person/department, and phone number or extension.

Plan to take them to lunch. The first day on the job the new employee is left in the lurch. This is a good time for the manager/supervisor to take the employee to lunch; include other co-workers, making sure the employee is at ease.

Give the new person some responsibility for his or her own orientation. Offer opportunities for self-directed learning, under appropriate supervision.

Keep the new person's family in mind. A new job means adjustment for the entire family, especially if they have relocated. Do what you can to ease the transition and help them feel comfortable in the community.

Ask for feedback. Find out from former new hires how they perceived the orientation process, and don't be afraid to make changes based on those recommendations. You can send an evaluation two to four weeks after the employee has started, saying something such as: Now that you have been with the company awhile, did the orientation meet your needs? After they have been working there awhile they find out what they should have known but did not. At Mecklenburg County, one of the trainers, Allyson Berbiglia says, "We recognize that we have to continuously improve orientation to meet the changing needs of our customers. What works now may not serve our employees well next month or next year."

Saturday, December 15, 2007

Training Budget

Training Budget

As a training and development manager, you are responsible for developing a training budget that can demonstrate to senior management a good return on investment (ROI) for your company. To prove that the company has a good ROI, you need to show the link between employees' educational proficiency and corporate earnings.

Start by outlining the total cost of the training program and assessing the potential benefits to your organization. The budget must fund training that is both in line with your organization's requirements and adequate for your employees' needs. Next, assess how many people need the training and the type of training that would benefit them.

After you complete the needs assessment, it's a good idea to compare several implementation plans and to determine the most cost-effective plan.

Finally, develop your budget. By using an ROI approach to develop your training budget, and by comparing various scenarios to determine the most cost-efficient method of delivering a training program, you are more likely to win the support necessary to implement your program.

HR Department will submit at the beginning of each financial year the budget for Training & Development activities to Board of Partners. The budget will include:

· Report on last years training activities including efficacy.

· Training Man days achieved and budget for current year.

· Training costs budgeted for external programs.

· Internal training programs and costs.

· Capital investments including training equipment planned.

· Segment & skill wise training calendar for the year.

· Trainers developed during last year and planned for current year.
Sanctioning authority

Within budgeted activities HR Executive shall organize all training activities. Any Training activity not budgeted for shall be only with prior approval of the Board of Partners.

Training Plan

*To satisfy present and future company needs created by organizational growth and change, accelerating business technology and increasing competition.

*To achieve the maximum possible learning in the shortest possible time.

*To ensure that training effectiveness is measured.

*To provide high quality training and support services to the staff of Company Name on all aspects of technical / non-technical / behavioral / spiritual progress.
* Enable Help & Support for Planning and Design of a trainer.
*Aid in identifying training requirements and areas.

*To make an inventory of people with detailed information on their skill and qualification.
*To prioritize groups according to the training needs.

Training Material

To make the training intervention effective & successful, mentioned below are some points which can be taken care of:
1. Room Size

a. Depends on the number of participants.
b. Spacing:
1.There should be at least 6 ft. space between the back wall and the table/chair which is nearest to it.

2.There should be at least 2-3 ft. of walking space along the sides of the room between the tables and the wall.

3.There should be at least 2-3 ft. of walking space in the middle between 2 rows of table.A high ceiling creates a better ambience.
2.Room Location / Arrangements
1.Should be preferably on the ground floor or above. Avoid rooms in the basement.

2.Ensure that there is no party or conference with loud sound system adjacent to our room as it may cause disturbance in our program.

3.In case there is any important meeting going on in an adjacent hall which requires silence, our own playing of videos may also disturb them.

4.Ensure that tea/coffee for any other intervention is not arranged outside our room, as during their break there is usually loud commotion which causes disturbance.

5.If our tea/coffee is arranged within the room, it should be preferably relocated outside the room. In case it can’t be relocated and the room is very large, then it should be at the back not at the side. Sometimes, it has been noticed that the hotel staff’s movements to arrange them within the room (before the break) causes much disturbance and distraction so try and have it outside and not inside the training room.

1.Round tables (cluster formation) with ideally 4 participants per table.

2.Comfortable chairs.

3.There should be at least 4 ft. distance between the tables. 6 ft. distance if there are chairs on the inside area of both tables. This would then give approximately 4 ft. distance between those chairs.

4.There should be approximately 8 ft. distance from the trainer’s table to the front table where the nearest participant would be seated.

5.Trainer’s table should preferably be a rectangle (long) table - approx. 6-8 ft. in length, with enough space to keep laptop / projector / manual.

6.1-2 extra chairs at the back (for the co-facilitator & also for the trainer to sit when videos are being played) and 1 chair at the trainer’s end near the table.

7.If possible, 1 extra table at the trainer’s corner of the room to keep carton/handouts/bag etc. (OR) if the trainer’s table is fully covered with the table cloth the carton/bags can be kept under the table.
4. LCD projector

1.It should be at least 2500 lumens for good clarity of the videos. In case a projector with at least 2000 lumens, the trainer should be informed in time so that s/he can get one arranged. The videos have great impact on the training and a good LCD is essential.

2.Resolution: Should support 1024x768.

3.The LCD remote is a ‘must’ as it really helps when the ‘blank’ option is required.
5.Projection Screen

1. Size: Preferably 10x12 ft. or nearest possible to that.
2.The distance from the projector table to the screen should be at least 6-8 ft.
6.Room Lighting

1.The screen should not be placed directly under any light and/or no light should be focusing on the screen due to which videos may not be clear.

2.There should also be no light behind the screen as the rod behind the screen casts a shadow on the screen.

3.If there are lights above the screen or focusing on the screen which cannot be switched off individually, please have the bulbs removed.

4.If the location of light switches are at the trainer’s end of the room, it becomes easier for the trainer to control the lights and switch them off during videos. So if there is a choice, the screen should be setup at that end where the switches are easily accessible.If there are mirrors on the wall, please have them covered if possible. If there is mirror behind the screen, the LCD projector light reflects on that and hurts the eyes of the participants
7.Sound System
1.Any Good Sound System (with amplifiers) which can be connected to the laptop. It should not be a normal PC/Laptop speaker as it won’t create the impact required.

2.Placement: If it is not an overhead system then the speakers should be kept facing the audience at least 8-10 feet away from the front table or with one at the front and one at the back with a distance of 6-8 ft from the nearest table. It should not be placed on one side of the room as it becomes too loud for the participants nearest the speaker(s).

3.If the trainer can carry his/her own sound system, it would be great. It can save their day (not to mention the program).
8.Power Supply

1.UPS for the Projector / Speakers / Laptop.

2.An extension cord which extends till (under) the table with at least 4 sockets. For Laptop / Speakers / LCD / 1 extra if needed.

3.The extension board should have sockets which can also accommodate flat pin if required.

4.It is maybe wise for the trainer to carry a multiple plug; just in case...
9. Whiteboard / Flipchart

1. 1 Whiteboard & 1 Flipchart board with preferably a chequered background flipchart (the chequered lines helps in writing straight and the words don’t slant up or down too much).

2.You can put the flipchart over the whiteboard instead of keeping one on either side which makes the room look too full.

3.Placement of the Whiteboard/Flipchart: On the left side of the trainer (right side of the participants when they face it). Reverse the position if the trainer is left handed.

4.Whiteboard/Flipchart markers: Black/Blue/Green/Red.

5.Preferred brand: Luxor as they have thick felt tip which is more visible. Reynolds markers have a thin felt tip and therefore less visible to participants at the back.
10.Participants Needs

a. Mineral water bottle and glasses at all tables including the trainer’s table.
b. Bowl of toffees. Participants prefer the following – Chloromint / Polo. Have plenty of them.
c. Pencils/Sharpeners/Erasers/Writing Pads for participants & the trainer.

Training Need analysis

Employees are the greatest asset which assists in achieving business objectives. To get best from employees it is essential that they be provided with appropriate training on all aspects of their work. Training is an excellent way for employees to learn new skills and knowledge and to reinforce good work practices. This can result in a change in workplace behaviour.

The effectiveness of the training heavily dependent upon effectiveness of process used to identifying training needs. Most organizations formalize training process by providing a budget and resources for training but this will not ensure the investment is a good one. To ensure the best possible returns for the organization, training and development activities like any investment have to be targeted, planned and managed. First and foremost, the training and development required for the organization to achieve its objectives must be properly identified and prioritized. This is the objective of training need analysis in an organisaion.

Training need analysis is the first step on the path to effective training. Training need analysis means measuring the gap between skills available and skills required for employees and making recommendations to bridge the gap. When need analysis is done, it is possible to focus attention on the target and identify the means for getting there. The Need analysis process also involves others and helps them to understand the issues which are facing. There are five essential reasons for doing need analysis:
The business world is changing rapidly and organizations require keeping pace with this change.

As result everyone is being asked to stretch to do more the ever and to do it faster.

To ensure solution addresses the issue.

To effectively focus resources, time and effort toward a targeted training solution.

To eliminate the necessity of having to look for another job.
Sources of Training Needs:

To carry out training needs for organization requires need information that can be evaluated against the factors. Sources of training need are requiring that relate needs to business. The information must relate to the level at which analysis is to be done: organization, occupation or employee. Suitable source for training need analysis is mission and values, business plan, succession plan, competency framework, views and and observations about ‘how we do things’, performance appraisal records, evidence of competence for individuals, development opportunities, action points that highlight needs questionnaires, job descriptions, performance targets, observation of employee at work, interviews with managers, staff, subordinates, internal and external customers.
Process of Training Need Analysis:
Assessment of present situation: In Training need analysis, assessment of present situation helps in defining the problem. All the other action in TNA depends on making this assessment accurately. To get complete picture of present situation three questions are involved:

Where organization stands now: Start by noting what already known about situation. Try to involve others right from the beginning so partnership will be established for the process.
Gathering information: Assessment of present situation and Envisioning the future helps in establishing good platform for training need analysis. Organization is in position to take steady aim at the target. Collection of information helps in defining what are aiming at and better understanding of what needs to be done to reach future state.

Why we require training: We require training to address the situation. What are the issues, problems or situation that is creating the need or demand for training in an organization? Never try to answer this question without getting ideas from others.What organization issues results in to need for training: The mission, vision and business objectives of organization helpful in this regard.

Envisioning Future: This aspect provides what will be the situation of individual, group and organization after the training has been accomplished. The vision of the organization is very important in this regard because it provides answer of three questions: (a) where organistion wants to be? (b) What would success look like? (c) Do organization have a complete picture?
Gathering information: Assessment of present situation and Envisioning the future helps in establishing good platform for training need analysis. Organization is in position to take steady aim at the target. Collection of information helps in defining what are aiming at and better understanding of what needs to be done to reach future state.

Sorting information: After collection of information require to interpret the information to find out what it really tells about current situation and challenges faced in moving to future state. When organization finishes this step organization will have document identifying major training issues to be addressed and recommendations for addressing them.
Sharing results: Sharing the results with others and developing the recommendations for action can be a heady experience. In this stage of need analysis organization will see the result of strategy. The momentum which is created by the results carries organization for action planning.

Action plan: The last action in the need analysis process is to translate the recommendations in to plan of action. List of activities will be used in the mapping the training approach. In this step we are simply creating a description of the specific training required to improve the situation. The action plan assures that organization will keep moving forward. It assigns responsibility for the training to specific individuals and gives them a timeline for completing the identified actions.

Measuring Training Effectiveness

Kirkpatrick Model
One of the most popular methodologies for measuring training effectiveness was developed by Kirkpatrick .This model articulates a four-step process.
* Level 1: Reactions.
At this level, we measure the participants’ reaction to the programme. This is measured through the use of feedback forms (also termed as “happy-sheets”). It throws light on the level of learner satisfaction. The analysis at this level serves as inputs to the facilitator and training administrator. It enables them to make decisions on continuing the programme, making changes to the content, methodology, etc.
* Level 2: Participant learning. We measure changes pertaining to knowledge, skill and attitude. These are changes that can be attributed to the training. Facilitators utilise pre-test and post-test measures to check on the learning that has occurred. However, it is important to note that learning at this level does not necessarily translate into application on the job.
Measuring the effectiveness of training at this level is important as it gives an indication about the quantum of change vis-à-vis the learning objectives that were set. It provides critical inputs to fine-tuning the design of the programme. It also serves the important aspect of being a lead indicator for transfer of learning on to the job context.
* Level 3: Transfer of learning. At this level, we measure the application of the learning in the work context, which is not an easy task. It is not easy to define standards that can be utilised to measure application of learning and there is always this question that preys on the minds of various people: ‘Can all changes be attributed to the training?’

Inputs at this level can come from participants and their supervisors. It makes sense to obtain feedback from the participants on the application of learning on the job. This can be done a few weeks after the programme so that it gives the participants sufficient time to implement what they have learnt. Their inputs can indicate the cause of success or failure; sometimes it is possible that learning was good at level-2, but implementation did not happen due to system-related reasons. It can help the organisation deal with the constraints posed by systems and processes so that they do not come in the way of applying learning.
* Level 4: Results.
This measures effectiveness of the programme in terms of business objectives. At this level we look at aspects such as increase in productivity, decrease in defects, cycle time reduction, etc.
Many organisations would like to measure effectiveness of training at this level; the fact remains that it is not very easy to do this, as it is improbable that we can show direct linkage. However, it is worthwhile making the attempt even if the linkage at this level is indirect.
It is possible for organisations to measure effectiveness for all programmes at level-1 and level2. This can be built into the design of the training programme.I have found that it is easy to measure training programmes related to technical and functional areas at level-3 and level-4. It is not easy to do this with behavioral skills programmes.
Organisations that choose to measure training effectiveness can start with the former category before moving to measuring behavioural skills at level-3 and level-4.I will articulate an example to show how we can measure some training programmes at levels-3 and level-4. Let us consider the case of an IT services company that conducts technical training programmes on products for their service engineers.

Learning at level-2 can be measured at the end of the programme by the use of tests—both written and practical. Measurement at level-3 is possible for these programmes by utilising the wealth of data the organisation will have on calls attended by engineers at various customer sites. This data is generally available in “Call Tracking Systems”.
I have found valuable insights by comparing data pertaining to the period before the training programme and after the training programme. To simplify analysis, we can take a 24-week cycle—12 weeks prior to the training and 12-weeks subsequent to the programme. The data gives a picture on aspects such as:
How many calls did the engineer attend on the given product prior to and after the programme? We need to analyse this data. If sufficient calls were not taken after the training, is it due to the fact that there were no calls in this category or because the engineer was not confident to take calls?

Comparison of the average time to complete a call. Did the cycle time to close similar calls reduce?

Comparison of the quality of the solution, eg did the problem occur again within a specified period?

Did the engineer change parts when they were not required to be changed? Such speculative change of spares gives an indication of the diagnostic capability of the engineer. Organisations get to know the details of such speculative changes when a so-called defective spare is returned by the repair centre with a statement that there is no problem with it.
The data from the call tracking system and other related data give a clear indication of application on the job. However, I will not attribute all of the transfer of learning to the training.
It is possible that the organisation has instituted mechanism such as mentoring, sending new engineers on calls with senior colleagues, etc, to enable them to also learn on the job. Hence the data needs to be interpreted keeping the overall environment in mind.

This data can also be utilised to measure effectiveness at level-4. It is easy to calculate productivity increases and cost savings for the example cited above. The measures from level-3 can be converted into revenue or cost saving figures.

Similarly, it is possible to conduct measurement in the areas of software development, manufacturing area, accounting and other such functional skills. There are prerequisites to conduct effectiveness of training at this level. It is important for the organisation to institute strong indicators to measure performance levels.

Thursday, December 13, 2007

Education & Training


Formal education is usually thought of studies done in schools. The students range from the very youngest through college to those in adult education.

There is also informal education or self-study, where adults read books, listen to tapes and learn through other media. Observing life itself is a form of education.

The objective of classes or of self-education is usually to gain knowledge about facts, events, principles, concepts, and such. In some classes the student is required to demonstrate the memorization of facts and the association between concepts. In other classes, they must apply rules to solve problems.

Testing concerns memorization and understanding, plus perhaps analytic and problem solving skills.

On the other hand, formal training is usually concerned with gaining a skill. Training is done in trade schools, seminars, and business training classes. Learners of training are usually adults, although there are some classes to teach youngsters certain skills.

Informal training is usually done through reading, viewing or listening to how-to material. Sometimes that material is then used as a guide, while the person applies the skills learned. For example, you may refer to a how-to book when trying to fix your plumbing at home.

Verification of skills is best achieved by actually doing something in the real world. Sometimes tests given in trade schools check for knowledge, as opposed to skill. Often in corporate training sessions and in seminars, there is no verification that the learner had achieved the desired skills.
Comparison Between Training and Education
Point of Comparision Education Training
* Content & Scope :Education Broad &General Training :Narrow & Specific-Job Related
* Nature :Education Pure & Theoretical Training : Applied & Practical
* Duration :Education Long Duration Training :Short Duration
* Result :Education Delayed Training : Quick & apparent

Why is training important?

Why is training important?
If organisations are to survive and prosper in the modern world of rapid change, they need to be more flexible, faster-moving and faster-learning than before. Their ability to do this rests upon the abilities of their workforce to have these characteristics – hence the value of training. If individuals are able to learn, develop and change, then so can the organisations.
Too many managers view training as a luxury, not a competitive and strategic necessity. "What if we train our employees and they leave," they ask. Well, what if you don't train them and they stay?

Are you one of those managers who looks at training as a nice-to-have instead of a must-have? Do you talk the talk, but when push comes to shove, training gets pushed aside? To assess your commitment to training, see how many of the following statements hit too close to home:
Training is more than just building the skills and knowledge of each individual of your team for their own personal benefit. Companies that have invested in training report the following benefits:

Improved recruiting. Today's job applicant is looking for an environment that fosters personal growth and development. For many job hunters, training is every bit as important as the compensation package. Plus, an effective training program allows you to cast a wider net by hiring people with the right attitude. Developing the skills can come later.

Higher retention. When people know that a company believes in their personal growth, they are likely to stay with that company for a longer period of time.

Better output. The lower your turnover rate, the more productive, enthusiastic and motivated your workforce. Employees will pack their new knowledge and skills into everything they design, produce and service.
Saving time and money Take press operators. Well-trained pressmen are professionals who can save you money in many ways, from reducing startup waste to finding more efficient ways to maintain costly equipment.

Well-trained pressmen know the condition of the press, know when problems are starting to occur and how to do something about the problem before it becomes a catastrophe.
Indeed, the well-trained pressman will not wait until the press breaks down or until the print quality suffers to act on the problem. Waiting may only cause customers or advertisers to be lost. Well-trained pressmen are more likely to meet their deadlines because the machine that they are operating is properly maintained and is less likely to break down during a press run, which would cause operating expenses to skyrocket in all areas of production.
1. Training boosts morale. Staff members feel better and more motivated about working at your paper if you show your belief that they can improve.

2.Training emphasizes priorities. In a dollar-strapped newspaper, the needs of the current staff can be directed toward specific training.

3.Training is cheap — certainly cheaper than recruiting and hiring. Whatever the challenges your newsroom is facing, eliminating your training budget isn’t going to solve it.

4.Training is a stimulant, while eliminating training can enforce mediocrity.
5.Training helps keep pace with a changing business. You need to stay on top of new developments in order to stay competitive.

6. Training develops teamwork. If you’ve got fewer copy editors than you’re used to, a refresher course on headlines and cutlines can help the existing team zero in on the essentials and work together more efficiently.

7.Training shares the good habits on your staff and reinforces your best work. If you can only send one person to a workshop, have him or her lead a session for the other staffers when they return.
8. Training brings in money. Focused training can pay for itself many times over by raising morale, boosting efficiency and maintaining high standards.

9.Training treats your staff like professionals. People who believe they are valued enough for you to invest in developing their skills might stay with your newspaper a little while longer.

10.Training helps maintain and improve quality and productivity.

Training Policy

The following will be the rules for Training and Development:
1. Training Need Identification
The existing skill gaps and skills needed for future Business requirements will be identified from the following:

Performance Measurement System.
Job description vis-a-vis the individual profile.
Feedback from the HOD/ immediate supervisor on the basis of on the job performance of individual/ group.
Career planning/ potential appraisal/ succession planning.
Organisational requirement.
Based on training needs identified, HRD Department will ensure that all officers get covered under the in-house/external training programmes every year.
2.Training Advisory Committee
There shall be a Training Advisory Committee which shall comprise:

Business Chief/Unit Chief
Functional Heads/HODs
Training In-charge (will act as Coordinator)

TAC shall be responsible for the areas as defined in the policy.
3 External Nominations

Where an employee has to be nominated for an external programme, a specific sanction for such nomination shall be obtained as per the enclosed Annexure – I.

On approval, the HRD Department will send a formal letter to the employee concerned intimating therein, objectives of such nomination as per the proforma enclosed as Annexure-II.

A feedback proforma, as per Annexure-III shall also be enclosed with the letter which the concerned employee shall return to HRD Department duly filled after his return from such programme.
4. In-House Training Programmes

Where a particular skill is required to be imparted to more number of people, the programme shall be organised in-house through reputed faculty/institutes.
5. Transfer of Learning

There shall be a structured review for evaluating the extent of transfer of learning acquired into practice. This shall be done through the following:

Each participant shall submit a report/make a presentation on the learnings acquired in a programme of two days or more duration.

Where the participant was nominated to a programme as part of Job Requirement/Developmental Plan, the participant and the concerned HOD shall be required to submit a report on completion of three months as per Annexure-IV.
The TAC shall review training activities on quarterly basis and interview, selectively, the participants who attended Programmes for job requirement/development plan to assess extent of learning/transfer of learning by the participants.

On basis of the above the TAC shall recommend improvement plan required in the Training and Development activities.
6.Job Rotation/Multi-Skilling

To identify potential employees who have the capability of taking higher/additional responsibility/general management position.

HRD Department alongwith the concerned HOD and Unit Chief shall draw out a plan for their job rotation both Intra and Inter Department.

All trainees and officers upto the level of HOD shall necessarily learn “One up – Two down” functions in his area of responsibility.
Effectiveness of The Training Programme

The effectiveness of the Training Programme in respect of Programme Contents, Faculty Rating, Duration, Methodology of Training etc. shall be adjudged by:
Specified Feedback Performa to be filled by participants on conclusion of the programme, enclosed as Annexure III.

Informal interview with participants and Faculty during and after the programme by HRD Department and Senior Managers Team.

Training Objective

The objectives of this policy are to:

*Have trained manpower, which is competent to meet the present needs and future requirements of the business.

*Improve and upgrade the skills and competencies of the employees for taking up higher responsibilities at the appropriate time.

*Bring about Behavioural Change, which is in consonance with the organisational value system.

*Encourage multi-skilling for improving productivity.

*Utilise training as a motivational tool for employee’s growth and development.

Physical Abilities Tests

Physical Abilities Tests: Tests typically test applicants on some physical requirement such as lifting strength, rope climbing, or obstacle course completion.

can idendentify individuals who are physically unable to perform the essential functions of a job

without risking injury to themselves or others

can result in decreased costs related to disability/medical claims, insurance, and workers compensation

decreased absenteeism


costly to administer

requirements must be shown to be job related through a thorough job analysis

may have age based disparate impact against older applicants

Cognitive Abilties Tests: Paper and pencil or individualized assessment measures of an individual's general mental ability or intelligence.

highly reliable

verbal reasoning and numerical tests have shown high validity for a wide range of jobs

the validity rises with increasing complexity of the job

combinations of aptitude tests have higher validities than individual tests alone

may be administered in group settings where many applicants can be tested at the same time

scoring of the tests may be completed by computer scanning equipment
lower cost than personality tests

non-minorities typically score one standard deviation above minorities which may result in adverse impact depending on how the scores are used in the selection process

differences between males and females in abilities (e.g., knowledge of mathematics) may negatively impact the scores of female applicants
Cognitive Ability Tests:Types

Employee Aptitude Survey A battery of employment tests designed to meet the practical requirements of a personnel office. Consists of 10 cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor ability tests. Nine of the 10 tests have 5-minute time limits. The remaining test requires two to ten minutes of testing time. Is a tool for personnel selection and a useful diagnostic tool for vocational guidance and career counseling. For situations in which it is desirable to retest an individual on an alternate form, special retest norms are provided for interpreting retest scores.
Test 1--Verbal Comprehension. Each item consists of one word in capital letters followed by four words in small letters. The respondent is to choose the word in small letters that means about the same as the word in capital letters. Scoring is the number right minus 1/3 the number wrong.

Test 2--Numerical Ability. A battery of three tests: integers, decimal fractions and common fractions, each is timed separately. Designed to measure skill in the four basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Test 3--Visual Pursuit. Designed to measure the ability to make rapid scanning movements of the eyes without being distracted by other irrelevant visual stimulation. Involves the visual tracing of lines through an entangled network.

Progressive Matrices, Advanced Sets I and II. A nonverbal test designed for use as an aid in assessing mental ability. Requires the examinee to solve problems presented in abstract figures and designs. Scores are said to correlate well with comprehensive intelligence tests. Set II provides a means of assessing all the analytical and integral operations involved in the higher thought processes and differentiates between people of superior intellectual ability.

Short-term Memory Tests A form of cognitive ability test that are exemplified by short-term memory tasks such as forward digit span and serial rote learning, which do not require mental manipulation of inputs in order to provide an output. Short-term memory tests lack face validity in predicting job performance.

Information Processing Tests Selection tests that have the same information processing requirements that occur on the job. In other words, the tests are tailored for each particular job. There is some evidence that adverse impact is reduced.

Personality Test

Personality Tests
A selection procedure measure the personality characteristics of applicants that are related to future job performance. Personality tests typically measure one or more of five personality dimensions: extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.

can result in lower turnover due if applicants are selected for traits that are highly correlated with employees who have high longevity within the organization

can reveal more information about applicant's abilities and interests

can identify interpersonal traits that may be needed for certain jobs

difficult to measure personality traits that may not be well defined

applicant's training and experience may have greater impact on job performance than applicant's personality

responses by applicant may may be altered by applicant's desire to respond in a way they feel would result in their selection

lack of diversity if all selected applicants have same personality traits

cost may be prohibitive for both the test and interpretation of results

lack of evidence to support validity of use of personality tests
Types of Personality Tests

Personal Attribute Inventory. An interpersonal assessment instrument which consists of 50 positive and 50 negative adjectives from Gough's Adjective Check List. The subject is to select 30 which are most descriptive of the taregt group or person in question. This instrument was specifically designed to tap affective reactions and may be used in either assessing attitudes toward others or as a self-concept scale.

Personality Adjective Checklist A comprehensive, objective measure of eight personality styles (which are closely aligned with DSM-III-R Axis II constructs). These eight personality styles are: introversive, inhibited, cooperative, sociable, confident, forceful, respectful, and sensitive. This instrument is designed for use with nonpsychiatric patients and normal adults who read minimally at the eighth grade level. Test reports are computer-generated and are intended for use by qualified professionals only. Interpretive statements are based on empirical data and theoretical inference. They are considered probabilistic in nature and cannot be considered definitive. (2K )

Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory Self-scoring six-point rating scale is a training instrument designed to provide feedback to individuals about their potential for cross-cultural effectiveness. It is most effective when used as part of a training program. It can also be used as a team-building tool for culturally diverse work groups and as a counseling tool for people in the process of cross-cultural adjustment. The inventory contains 50 items, distributed among 4 subscales: emotional resilience, flexibility/openness, perceptual acuity, personal autonomy. Materials:
California Psychological Inventory Multipurpose questionnaire designed to assess normal personality characteristics important in everyday life that individuals make use of to understand, classify, and predict their own behaviors and that of others. In this revision, two new scales, empathy and independence, have been added; semantic changes were made in 29 items; and 18 items were eliminated. The inventory is applicable for use in a variety of settings, including business and industry, schools and colleges, clinics and counseling agencies, and for cross cultural and other research. May be used to advise employees/applicants about their vocational plans.

During An Interview - Nerves

Nerves – Yep love them or hate them we all have them and they apply to everything we do in life – whether it’s a new job, a date, going to the dentist or being reprimanded. What are nerves? Well they are your bodies’ way of dealing with stress usually caused by a fear of the unknown, your body putting up a protective barrier to help you deal with the unknown. Symptoms include; dry mouth, shaky hands, sweating, thumping heart, faintness, feeling like you need to go to the bathroom – sound familiar! Everyone is nervous when attending a job interview – after all you are doing all this because you want to get that new job. Your body is releasing chemical called adrenalin which assists you in focusing your mind completely on the situation that you are dealing with. The secret is being able to manipulate and control your frame of mind and use that adrenalin to your advantage and not let it take over completely.
How Can I Control My Nerves?

The secret to controlling your nerves is to convince your brain that you have little to worry about. The reality is that we all get ourselves worked up far too much in the first place – we convince ourselves that we are going to under perform or embarrass ourselves beyond belief. After all I am sure you will have been in many situations where you have been a nervous wreck and once the situation is over (like at the end of an interview or coming out of the dentists) felt the overwhelming experience of calmness. Yes this is caused by your body relaxing and the adrenalin ceasing. So how can you combat this? Well it is really simple - all you need to do is be prepared and calm yourself and the nerves, to a degree, will be far less. I am sure you will have heard of the term “Mind Over Matter” well it is true. The brain and body are complicated things, you can convince yourself of anything if you want to and this can have a negative as well as positive outcome. So to deal with this issue and put your mind at rest (hence reducing your nervousness) it’s always a good idea to try and address the areas you need to deal with where you feel you will be an absolute failure if things go badly wrong. So lets just look at the major areas:
Drinks - should you or shouldn’t you? As I have mentioned before if you are offered a drink, be it tea, coffee or water and you think you are suddenly going to have an explosive fit and chuck your cup three foot in the air then don’t accept one. The only exception I can recommend here is Water. The reason being is that if you have a glass of water no one is going to notice if you did or didn’t drink it. However if you get stuck for something to say when asked a difficult question or you find your mouth is getting irritably dry it’s a good excuse to take a sip. While it doesn’t buy you a great deal of time it does give you chance to pause and reflect on the question a few moments before you give an answer.

Awkward Questions – Well unless you have a crystal ball you are not going to know what questions you are going to be asked at your interview. However if you know anything about the job then you can have a good second guess at what sort of questions are likely to come up and figure out some answers accordingly. Just remember how it was when you sat exams at school – you didn’t know which questions were going to come up so you revised all of them. Again as previously mentioned if there is a discrepancy in your CV and you think it may be an issue then try and think of an appropriate answer – don’t just ignore it and think to yourself “I hope they don’t mention that” – be prepared it will take the worry.
Shaky Hands! – Well I have to admit I always get shaky hands (and I am sure I am not alone on this issue!). There is no real definitive way of dealing with shaky hands really the only thing you can do is keep them under control by placing one hand on top of the other and keeping them on your lap. As you gain confidence throughout the interview and your mind drifts away from the issue you will find that the shaking will naturally ease and it should no longer prove a problem.

Dropping Or Tripping Over Your Briefcase Or Handbag – Come on, there’s absolutely no need to be clinging onto that briefcase or handbag. Place them on the floor (under your chair preferably) that way you aren’t going to drop them or fall over them when you get up! If you need a pen and paper (and it’s always good to have one) take them out of your attaché at the start of the meeting

Fear Of Sneezing or Having a Runny Nose – Again it all comes down to being prepared, make sure you take a handkerchief or tissue and have it somewhere accessible. It’s no good locked in your handbag or briefcase, place it in your pocket so you can get at it quickly should you need to.
Make Life Easier For Yourself At The Interview:

Now I am not trying to teach my grandmother to suck eggs but the night before your interview try and get a good nights sleep. Eat your evening meal earlier than usual and go to bed a bit earlier. Don’t go out on the lash with your mates until 2.00 am in the morning or for a curry or other meal that gives off a strong smelling after odour. As you will no doubt be aware garlic smells dreadful the next day and will ooze out of your pores for a good 24 hours after eating it so try and steer clear of meals that include this. Also alcohol stays in the blood stream for a fair while and you don’t want to be turning up at your new job interview feeling hung over and tired. If you are worried about your breath smelling then eat a mint before you go into the interview or use a menthol spray, you can but little handy ones from the chemist which will fit in your pocket.

On the morning of the interview (if the interview is in the morning) try and have some breakfast, I know it’s difficult to eat on a stomach that’s turning around faster that a washing machine on a full cycle spin, but food is for the brain and it will help you keep your mind on the job. Besides which if you don’t eat and have an empty stomach it is very likely that you will experience that intensely dreadful sickly feeling. If you have an interview during the afternoon see if you can catch an early lunch or if the interview is early evening try and eat a decent breakfast and catch a late lunch. Ideally you don’t want to eat more than two hours before the start of the interview to give your body the chance to digest your food.

If you are really strung out and feeling uptight just before your job interview begins then you can always try some breathing exercises. Now I am no therapist but I always find that breathing in deep breaths through your nose, holding it in for a few seconds and breathing out through your mouth helps. My doctor told me to try this when I was a bit younger and had problems dealing with stress and it seems to work for me to help me relax. Try and think happy thoughts whether they are about your children, your wife, husband, partner or whatever but try and think of something that makes you smile. It takes far more muscles to make you frown than it does to make you smile and using this technique you will automatically begin to feel the element of wellbeing. It will also temporarily take your mind off the situation ahead which will ease your stress and worry. When you get into the interview and are seated try and relax and get comfortable, I don’t mean slouch in the chair, but try and pick a position where you are not all screwed up like the hunchback of Notre Dame. Being comfortable will help relax all of your muscles including your legs, abdomen and chest ultimately making your breathing more relaxed. During your interview make sure you listen to each question posed to you properly, don’t try and think of an answer while your interviewer is still asking the question.