Job Analys is breaking down the complexity of a person's job into logical parts such as duties and tasks. It identifies and organizes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to perform the job correctly. This is accomplished by gathering task activities and requirements by observation, interviews, or other recording systems.
Job analysis produces the following information about a job:
* Overall purpose ‑ why the job exists and, in essence, what the job holder is expected to contribute.
* Content ‑ the nature and scope of the job in terms of the tasks and operations to be performed and the activities to be carried out ‑ ie the processes of converting inputs (knowledge, skills and abilities) into outputs (results).
*Key result areas ‑ the results or outcomes for which the job holder is accountable.
*Performance criteria ‑ the criteria, measures or indicators that enable an assessment to be carried out to ascertain the degree to which the job is being performed satisfactorily.
Responsibilities ‑ the level of responsibility the job holder has to exerciseby reference to the scope and input of the job; the amount of discretion allowed to makedecisions; the difficulty, scale, variety and complexity of the problems to be solved; the quantity and value of the resources controlled; and the type and importance of interpersonal relations.
* Organizational factors ‑ the reporting relationships of the job holder, ie to whom heor she reports either directly (the line manager) or functionally (on'matters concerning specialist areas, such as finance or personnel management); the people reporting directly or indirectly to the job holder;and the extent to which the job holder is involved in teamwork.
Environmental factors ‑ working conditions, physical, mental and emotional demands, health and safety considerations, unsocial hours,mobility, and ergonomic factors relating to the design and use of equipment or work stations.
Methods of Job Analysis
Several methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These include:
• review of job classification systems
• incumbent interviews
• supervisor interviews
• expert panels
• structured questionnaires
• task inventories
• check lists
• open‑ended questionnaires
• incumbent work logs
A typical method of Job Analysis would be to give the incumbent a simple questionnaire to identify job duties, responsibilities, equipment used, work relationships, and work environment. The completed questionnaire would then be used to assist the Job Analyst who would then conduct an interview of the incumbent(s). A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment, relationships, and work environment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The Job Analyst would then prepare a job description and/or job specifications.The method that you may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job, number of jobs, number of incumbents, and location of jobs.
Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas*
• Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include‑ frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc.
• Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives.
• Tools and Equipment Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis.
• Relationships Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people.
• Requirements The knowledges, skills, and abilities (KSA's) required to perform the job. While an incumbent may have higher KSA's than those required for the job, a Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.