T. McGregor (1906-1964) postulated that managers tend to make two different assumptions about human nature. These views he explored in his theory X and theory Y:
The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he or she can.
Because of this human characteristic, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organisational objectives.
The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and wants security above all.
The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.
External control and threat of punishment are not the only means for brining about effort toward organisational objectives. People will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.
Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.
The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination. Ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organisational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed I the population.
Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilised.
Recognising and rewarding
Planning and organising
Consulting and delegating
Giving / Seeking Information
Monitoring operations and environment