A party wishing to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion or arrangement through collective bargaining should first identify the objectives of the exercise. Some objectives common to employers are the following:
i) Ensuring that the enterprise is not rendered uncompetitive
ii)The need to keep wage increases below the level of productivity increases and/or within the inflation rate.
ii)Guarantees of industrial peace during the period of operation of the agreement
As far as possible managers should be consulted in determining objectives; their priorities should be solicited, and they should be aware of the company's views in regard to objectives so that they could be tested against the managers' views.
It is insufficient to merely determine objectives. A tentative plan to achieve these objectives, which can be modified during the course of the negotiations, could be formulated. Such a plan should include the company's requests to the union. For instance, work reorganization to increase productivity to absorb the cost increases consequent upon collective bargaining may form part of the company's plan. Negotiations on the union's demands are generally an ideal setting in which management can achieve some of its objectives through agreement. In order to achieve this, the management must be clear about its own priorities. If there is an existing collective agreement, it would be a useful starting point. An analysis should be made of how it has worked, its unsatisfactory features from the company's point of view should be identified, and the changes necessary determined.
The negotiating team, and the respective roles of the members, should be determined before the negotiations. Employers would find it useful to include in the team people from different disciplines.
The union's demands should be carefully studied. The following are some of the matters to which attention should be paid:
Assess the economic impact of the demands on the company.
Make a comparative study, e.g. in a wage demand one should ascertain comparative wage rates in the industry and in allied or similar businesses, the minimum wage, if any, and the rates applicable in other collective agreements.
Separate the demands which the company has no intention of fulfilling or giving, either on a question of principle or due to economic incapacity.
Prepare the company's position in regard to the other demands, e.g. the conditions on which the company may be prepared to grant them or compromise on them.
A party to collective bargaining negotiations has to formulate a strategy for all stages of the negotiation, including the pre-negotiation stage. Before negotiations commence, the strategy should include matters such as;
i)options as referred to above
ii)how much to offer while leaving room for further negotiation if the offer fails. The offer should be sufficiently attractive so as not to lead to a breakdown in negotiations.
iii)how to link one's requirements to the concessions one makes.